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Grade 3: Social Studies Content Skills

Content Standard 4: The student will analyze the significant events and historic personalities contributing to the development of the state Oklahoma

  1. Describe early expeditions in Oklahoma including those of Coronado, Washington Irving, and George Catlin.

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Brad Agnew, “Dodge-Leavenworth Expedition
Brown, Lynn. “Great Spanish Road
Everett, Dianna. “European Exploration
Hoig, Stan “Irving, Ellsworth, Latrobe, and Pourtalès Expedition
Hunt, David C. “Catlin, George
Lewis, Tom and Sara Jane Richter. “Coronado Expedition

Research Center Resources


  • Brad Agnew, “The Dodge-Leavenworth Expedition of 1834,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 53 (Fall 1975)
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene. Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1949)
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene, ed. Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1916)
  • Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians, 2 vols. (4th ed.; London: David Bogue, 1844)
  • “Coronado’s Route in Oklahoma, 1541–1542” (1983.061, Minor Collections, OHS)
  • Foreman, Grant. “Early Trails through Oklahoma,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 3 (June 1925)
  • Gragert, Steve, “Washington Irving, Henry Ellsworth, Albert-Alexandre de Pourtalès and Charles Latrobe, 1832,” Frontier Adventurers: American Exploration in Oklahoma ed. Joseph A. Stout, Jr. (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1976)
  • Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey, eds. and trans., Narratives of the Coronado Expedition 1540–1542 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1940)
  • Hassrick, Royal B. The George Catlin Book of American Indians (New York: Promontory Press, 1981)
  • Irving, Washington. A Tour on the Prairies ed. John Francis McDermott (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956)
  • “Leavenworth-Dodge Expedition” (Joseph Thoburn Collection, OHS)
  • Quimby, George I. Indians of the Western Frontier: Paintings of George Catlin (Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1954)
  • Thomas, A.B. “Spanish Exploration of Oklahoma, 1599–1792,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 6 (1928)
  • Vigil, Ralph H., Frances W. Kaye, and John R. Wunder, eds. Spain and the Plains: Myths and Realities of Spanish Exploration and Settlement on the Great Plains (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1994)
  • “Washington Irving” (Joseph Thoburn Collection, box 17, folder 6–7, OHS)
  • “Washington Irving Trail” (booklet, 1994.060, Minor Collections; Historic Oklahoma Collection; OHS)
  • Welge, William D. Early Visitors to Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Commonwealth Press, 2009)


  • “Composite Historical Map, 1519–1821” (PREMAP.CHAPMAN.0001, Berlin B. Chapman Collection, OHS)

Additional Resources

  • Curths, Karen. “The Routes of French and Spanish Explorers Penetration Into Oklahoma,” Red River Valley Historical Review 6 (Summer 1981)
  • Flint, Richard and Shirley Cushing Flint, eds. The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: the 1540–1542 Route Across the Southwest (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1997)

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