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Grade 3: Social Studies Content Skills

Content Standard 4: The student will analyze the significant events and historic personalities contributing to the development of the state Oklahoma

  1. Describe the migrations and settlements by Native Americans including the Trail of Tears.

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Everett, Dianna. “Indian Territory
Fixico, Donald. “American Indians
Frank, Andrew K. “Five Civilized Tribes,” “Indian Removal,” “Trail of Tears
Green, Donald E. “Settlement Patterns

Research Center Resources


  • Agnew, Brad. Fort Gibson: Terminal on the Trail of Tears (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991)
  • Burgan, Michael. The Trail of Tears (Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, c2001)
  • Debo, Angie. And Still the Waters Run: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940)
  • Debo, Angie. The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961)
  • Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation (New York: Doubleday, c1988)
  • Ellis, Jerry. Walking the Trail: One Man’s Journey Along the Trail of Tears (New York: Doubleday, c1988)
  • Fischer, Laura. Life on the Trail of Tears (Chicago: Heinemann Library, c2003)
  • Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932)
  • King, Duane, ed. The Cherokee Indian Nation: A Troubled History (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1979)
  • Littlefield, Daniel F. and James W. Parins, eds. Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal, Volume 1, A–Z (Greenwood Press, 2011)
  • Perdue, Theda and Michael D. Green, ed. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents (Boston: Bedford Books of St Martin’s Press, 1995)
  • Rozema, Vicki. Voices from the Trail of Tears (Winston-Salem, NC: J.F. Blair c2003)
  • National Park Service, United States. Trail of Tears National Historic Trail: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee: Comprehensive Management and Use Plan (Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1992)


  • “Five Civilized Tribes” (Five Civilized Tribes Memorial Collection, Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)
  • “Trail of Tears” (Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection, Oklahoma Society Photograph Collection, OHS)

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