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Grade 3: Social Studies Content Skills

Content Standard 4: The student will analyze the significant events and historic personalities contributing to the development of the state Oklahoma

  1. Explain the opening of the Unassigned Lands and distinguish between the points of view of both Native Americans and settlers. (CCRIT 6)

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Blackburn, Bob L. “Unassigned Lands
Brown, Kenny L. “Oklahoma Territory
Everett, Dianna. “Indian Territory,” “Land Openings
Green, Donald E. “Settlement Patterns

Research Center Resources


  • Agnew, Brad. “Voices from the Land Run of 1889,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Spring 1989)
  • Baldwin, Kathlyn. The 89ers: Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 (Oklahoma City: Western Heritage Books, 1981)
  • Cherokee Outlet Land Opening Collection, 1893–1905 (OHS)
  • Gittinger, Roy. The Formation of the State of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939)
  • Green, Donald E. “The Oklahoma Land Run of 1889: A Centennial Re-Interpretation,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Summer 1989)
  • Hagan, William T. Taking Indian Lands: The Cherokee (Jerome) Commission 1889–1893 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003)
  • Hoig, Stan. The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1984)
  • Lamar, Howard R. “The Creation of Oklahoma: New Meanings for the Oklahoma Land Run,” in The Culture of Oklahoma, ed. Howard F. Stein and Robert F. Hill (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993)
  • Morris, John W., ed. Boundaries of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1980)
  • Turner, Alvin O. “Order and Disorder: The Opening of the Cherokee Outlet,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 71 (Summer 1993)
  • Wade, J.S. “Uncle Sam’s Horse Race: Opening of the Cherokee Strip,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma 35 (Summer 1957)


  • “Hopeful Homesteaders Gambling in the Streets, the Unassigned Lands in the Background Across the South Canadian River, prior to April 22, 1889” (15764, D.S. Mitchell Collection, OHS)
  • “Ready for the Race," April 22, 1899” (3946, H.R. Voth Collection, OHS)
  • “The Race” (10601, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • “The Start, Cherokee Outlet Land Opening” (18654, Carl Sadler Collection, OHS)
  • “Wagon Train Crossing into I.T. South of Arkansas City, Kansas, Traveling to Unassigned Lands Opening on April 22, 1889, April 18–19, 1889” (19535.5, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection:

  • Ben Blansit Interview 5/9/1985, Land opening 1892, Civil War (H1985.090, OHS)
  • Clarence Hampton Interview, 11/10/1983, Cherokee Outlet land run 1893, settling, filing, and breaking sod (H1983.173, OHS)
  • Goldie Murphy Interview 3/16/1984, No Man’s Land settler, Fort Reno 1889 land run (H1984.053, OHS)
  • Iva Potter Interview 3/31/1974, Land run 1889 (H1987.173, OHS)
  • Laura Crews Interview, participant in the 1889 land rush, Cherokee Strip (LL 17.1, Living Legends Oral History Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection:

  • “Correct Map of the Oklahoma Country and Cherokee Outlet Reached via the Missouri Pacific Railway and Iron Mountain Route, 1889” (OTMAP.0005, OHS)
  • “The Kansas City Times Map of Oklahoma” (OTMAP.001, OHS)
  • “Map of the Cherokee Strip, Indian Territory, 1884” (ITMAP.0166, OHS)
  • “Map of Indian Territory, After 1890” (ITMAP.0117, OHS)
  • “Map of Indian Territory, Including No Man’s Land” (ITMAP.0158, OHS)

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