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High School: Oklahoma History Content Skills

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state's geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

Oklahoma History Center Education Resources

American Indians in Oklahoma trunk and e-exhibit: trunk description | e-exhibit
Archaeology trunk and e-exhibit: trunk description | e-exhibit
Fourteen Flags over Oklahoma trunk: trunk description
Fur Trade in Oklahoma trunk: trunk description
Oklahoma Explorers trunk: trunk description

  1. Integrate visual information to identify and describe the significant physical and human features including major trails, railway lines, waterways, cities, ecological regions, natural resources, highways, and landforms.

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Abbott, B. Nick and Richard A. Marston "Ozark Plateau"
Agnew, Brad. "Illinois River"
Allen, LaRadius. "Alabaster Caverns State Park"
Boucher, Kurtis W. and Richard A. Marston. "Great Salt Plains"
Cole, Shayne R. and Richard A. Marston. "Ouachita Mountains," "Winding Stair Mountains"
Corbett, Bill. "Transportation"
Dortch, Steven D. "Chisholm Trail"
Everett, Dianna. "Canadian River," "Highways"
Gromadzki, Gregory A. and Richard A. Marston. "Boston Mountains"
Hurt, Douglas A. "Three Forks Area"
Jackson, Dana. "Black Kettle National Grassland," "McCurtain County Wilderness Area," "Ouachita National Forest"
Johnson, Howard L. "Climate"
Johnson, Kenneth S. "Little Sahara State Park"
Lewis, Tom and Sara Jane Richter. "Black Mesa"
Lowitt, Richard. "Environment and Cultural Ecology"
McPhail, Melanie L. and Richard A. Marston, "Glass Mountains," "Osage Plains"
Neel, Christopher and Richard A. Marston. "Quartz Mountains"
O'Dell, Larry. "Arkansas River," "Cimarron River," "Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge," "Little River National Wildlife Refuge," "Optima National Wildlife Refuge," "Prairie National Wild Horse Refuge," "Robbers Cave State Park," "Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge," "Tallgrass Prairie Preserve," "Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge," "Washita National Wildlife Refuge," "Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge"
Patton, Jamie J. and Richard A. Marston. "Great Plains," "Shawnee Hills"
Pittman, J. Josh and Richard A. Marston, "Antelope Hills," "Coastal Plains"
Roberson, Glen. "Red River"
Ross, William G. "Forestry"
Rudd, Constance A. "Chickasaw National Recreation Area"
Sanchez, Joe. "Turner Falls"
Sewell, Steven L. "Coal"
Splinter, Dale K. and Richard A. Marston, "Arbuckle Mountains," "Wichita Mountains"
Tolman, Keith. "Steamboats and Landings"
Tyson, Carl N. "Shawnee Trail," "Western Trail"
Veenendaal, Jr., Augustus J. "Railroads"
Ware, Kevin J. and Richard A. Marston. "Kiamichi Mountains"
Watkins, Brad W. "Sans Bois Mountains"
Wilson, Linda D. "Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge"
Wisleder, Daniel R. and Richard A. Marston. "Eastern Lowlands"

Research Center Resources

Library

  • "Alabaster Caverns State Park" (Fred S. Barde Collection, OHS)
  • Ballenger, T.L. "The Illinois River," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 46 (Winter 1968–69)
  • Boeger, Palmer H. Oklahoma Oasis: From Platt National Park to Chickasaw National Recreation Area (Muskogee, OK: Western Heritage Books, 1987)
  • "Ferries" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Forbes, Gerald. Guthrie: Oklahoma's First Capital (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1938)
  • Foreman, Grant. "River Navigation in the Early Southwest," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 15 (June 1928)
  • "Salt Works in Early Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 10 (December 1932)
  • "The Three Forks," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (March 1924)
  • Gard, Wayne. The Chisholm Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988)
  • Gibson, Arrell M. The Canadian River Valley (New York: Teachers College Press of Columbia University, 1971)
  • Gilbert, Claudette Marie and Robert L. Brooks. From Mounds to Mammoths: A Field Guide to Oklahoma Prehistory (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000)
  • "Guthrie" (vertical file, OHS)
  • "Highways" (vertical file, OHS)
  • "Highway & Road Travel in Oklahoma" (Minor Collections, OHS)
  • Hightower, Michael J. "Cattle, Coal and Indian Land: A Tradition of Mining in Southeastern Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 62 (Spring 1984)
  • Hofsommer, Donovan L., ed., Railroads in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977)
  • Hunter, Louis C. Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History (New York: Dover Publications, 1993)
  • Johnson, Kenneth S. Geology and Earth Resources of Oklahoma (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 1972)
  • Little, Elbert L. Forest Trees of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Forest Commission, 1927)
  • Morris, John W., ed. Geography of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977)
  • "Oklahoma Counties and County Seats and Map," Oklahoma Historical Society website
  • Oklahoma's Water Atlas (Norman: Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 1984)
  • Rafferty, Milton D.
  • The Ouachita Mountains: A Guide for Fisherman, Hunters, and Travelers (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1991)
  • The Ozarks, Land and Life (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Riegel, Robert E. The Story of the Western Railroads, from 1852 through the Reign of the Giants (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964)
  • "Robbers Cave State Park" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Tolman, Keith. "Tea Kettle on a Raft: A History of the State and its People," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 81 (Winter 2003–2004)
  • "Turner Falls" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Tyson, Carl N. The Red River in Southwestern History (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)
  • Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Early Navigation and Commerce Along the Arkansas and Red Rivers in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 8 (March 1930)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Historic Places on the Old Stage Line from Fort Smith to Red River," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 11 (June 1933)

Audio/Visual

  • "Agriculture and Industry Maps of Oklahoma, 1930s" (Minor Collections, OHS)
  • "Bull Teams at Caldwell, KS Getting Ready to be Loaded with Freight and then Head South on the Chisholm Trail to Darlington & Fort Reno, I.T." (15321, Muriel Wright Collection, OHS)
  • "Chisholm Trail Marker, Enid, Oklahoma," "Jesse Chisholm Trail Memorial" (19657.103, 19657.104, Samuel W. Brown Collection, OHS)
  • James Phelan Interview, 4/27/1983 (H1983.095, Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Film and Video Archives, YouTube Channel

Oklahoma Historical Society Map Archives

  • "A Game Type Map of Oklahoma, 1943" (GEMAP.FOREMAN.0001, Grant Foreman Collection, OHS)
  • "Map of a Portion of Oklahoma Showing the Location of the Chisholm Trail, 1933" (HISMAP.003, OHS)
  • Railroad Maps (OHS)
  • "The Old Chisholm Trail with subsidiary trails in Texas, 1873" (HISMAP.0039, OHS)
  • "Three Forks Country" (HISMAP.0110, OHS)
  • Waterway Maps (Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)

Additional Resources

  • Fay, Robert O. and Douglas C. Brockie. Metallic-mineral Resources of Oklahoma (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2002)
  • Honess, Charles William. Geology of the Southern Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 1923)
  • Johnson, Howard L. and Claude E. Duchon. The Atlas of Oklahoma Climate (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)
  • Johnson, Kenneth S. "Mountains, Streams, and Lakes of Oklahoma," Oklahoma Geological Survey Informational Series No. 1 (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 1998)
  • Johnson, Kenneth S. "Principal Ground-Water Resources in Oklahoma," Earth Sciences and Mineral Resources of Oklahoma, Educational Publication 9 (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2004)
  • Johnson, Kenneth S. and Kenneth V. Luza. "Rivers, Streams, and Lakes of Oklahoma," Earth Sciences and Mineral Resources of Oklahoma, Educational Publication 9 (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2004)
  • Morris, John W., ed. Cities of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1979)
  • Rosson, Jr., James S. Forest Resources of East Oklahoma, 1993, USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station Resource Bulletin SRS-58 (Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, 2001)
  • "State Parks," Jimmy Rogers Collection, Archives and Manuscripts Division, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond
  • US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, America's Great Outdoors: Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands (Washington D.C.: GPO, 2002)



  1. Summarize the accomplishments of prehistoric cultures including the Spiro Mound Builders.

The ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Bement, Leland C. "Cooper Site"
Brooks, Robert L. "Grobin Davis Site," "Paleoenvironment," "Precontact Agriculture," "Prehistoric Native Peoples"
Buehler, Kent J. "Burnham Site," "Certain Bison Kill Site"
Drass, Richard R. "Lawrence Site"
Duncan, Marjorie A. "Anthony Site," "Kubik Site"
Galm, Jerry. "Wister Phase"
Hurst, Stance. "Packard Site"
Lintz, Chris. "Antelope Creek Phase"
Odell, George H. "Lasley Vore Site"
O'Dell, Larry. "Deer Creek Site"
Perttula, Timothy K. "Quince Site"
Peterson, Dennis A. "Spiro Mounds"
Sisson, Francie. "Cooperton Site"
Thurmond, J. Peter. "Summers Site"
Vehik, Rain. "Fourche Maline Focus"
Vehik, Susan C. "Coalesced Villagers," "Precontact Hunting Patterns," "Precontact Trade Patterns"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Anderson, Adrian D., ed. "The Cooperton Mammoth: An Early Man Bone Quarry," Great Plains Journal 14 (Spring 1975)
  • Baird, W. David and Danney Goble, eds., "Demythologizing History: The Case of Fernandina," in The Story of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)
  • Bell, Robert E., ed. Prehistory of Oklahoma (Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984)
  • Bell, Robert and David A. Baerreis. "A Survey of Oklahoma Archaeology," Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society 22 (1951)
  • Bement, Leland C. Bison Hunting at Cooper Site: Where Lightning Bolts Drew Thundering Herds (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999)
  • From Top to Bottom: Pedestrian Survey of the Black Mesa Region, Cimarron County, Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c2003)
  • Bement, Leland C. and Kent J. Bueler. "Preliminary Results from the Certain Site: A Late Archaic Bison Kill in Western Oklahoma," Plains Anthropologist 39 (May 1994)
  • Brown, James A. Spiro Studies (Norman: University of Oklahoma Research Institute, 1934)
  • Drass, Richard R. Culture Change on the Eastern Margins of the Southern Plains, Studies in Oklahoma's Past, No. 19 (Norman: Oklahoma Archaeological Survey, 1997)
  • Drass, Richard R. "Redbud Plains Variant Sites," "Southern Plains Villagers," in Archaeology of the Great Plains, ed. W. Raymond Wood (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998)
  • Ferring, C. Reid. An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Fort Sill, Oklahoma (Lawton, OK: Museum of the Great Plains, 1978)
  • Gilbert, Claudette Marie and Robert L. Brooks. From Mounds to Mammoths: A Field Guide to Oklahoma Prehistory (2nd ed.; Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000)
  • Hofman, Jack L. and Russell W. Graham. "The Paleo-Indian Cultures of the Great Plains,"in Archaeology of the Great Plains, edited by W. Raymond Wood (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998)
  • La Vere, David. Looting Spiro Mounds: An American King Tut's Tomb (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007)
  • Neal, William L. and Richard R. Drass. "Middle Holocene Archaeology in Northeastern Oklahoma," Oklahoma Anthropological Society Bulletin 47 (Norman: Oklahoma Anthropological Society, 1998)
  • Odell, George H. "The Protohistoric Period in Eastern Oklahoma: Evidence from the Lasley Vore Site," Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society 47 (1998)
  • Peterson, Dennis A., J. Daniel Rogers, Don G. Wyckoff, and Karen Dohm, eds. Contributions to Spiro Archaeology: Mound Excavations and Regional Perspectives (Norman: Oklahoma Archaeological Survey, 1993)
  • Sudbury, Brian. "KA-3, The Deer Creek Site: An Eighteenth Century French Contact Site in Kay County, Oklahoma," Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society 24 (1975)
  • Thurmond, J. Peter. "Archaeology of the Dempsey Divide, a Late Archaic/Woodland Hotspot on the Southern Plains," Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society 39 (1991)
  • Vehik, Rain. The Archaeology of the Bug Hill Site, Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, Archaeological Research and Management Center Research Series 7 (Norman: University of Oklahoma, Archaeological Research and Management Center, 1982)
  • Wedel, Mildred Mott. The Deer Creek Site, Oklahoma: A Wichita Village Sometimes Called Ferdinandina, An Ethnohistorian's View (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
  • Wedel, Waldo. Prehistoric Man on the Great Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961)
  • Wyckoff, Don G.
  • "A Summary of the Calf Creek Horizon in Oklahoma," Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society 42 (1993; February 1995)
    "The Calf Creek Horizon in Eastern Oklahoma," Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society 40 (1991)

Audio/Visual

  • "Archaeology, 1862–1936" (Joseph Thoburn Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Archaeology, 1860s–2006" (Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, box 37, OHS)
  • "Archaeology-Cimarron County" (Alvin Rucker Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Archaeology-Sites-Spiro Mounds" (Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • "Glimpse of Group of Mounds of the Prehistoric Earth People," and "The Historic Claremore Mound" (Muriel Wright Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Kozuch, Laura. "Olivella Beads from Spiro and the Plains," American Antiquity 67 (October 2002)
  • Vehik, Susan C. "Conflict, Trade, and Political Development on the Southern Plains," American Antiquity 67 (January 2002)



  1. Compare and contrast the goals and significance of early Spanish, French, and American expeditions including the impact of disease, interactions with Native Americans, and the arrival of the horse and new technologies.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Agnew, Brad. "Fur Trappers and Traders"
Brown, Lynn. "Great Spanish Road"
Everett, Dianna. "Andre Fabry de la Bruyere," "Claude-Charles Du Tisne," "European Exploration," "Mallet Expeditions"
Lewis, Tom and Sara Jane Richter. "Coronado Expedition"
Million, Anne. "French"
O'Dell, Larry. "Louis Juchereau de St. Denis"
Tyson, Carl N. "Athanase De Mezieres," "Jean Baptiste Benard de La Harpe," "Juan de Onate"
Williams, Chad. "Battle of the Twin Villages"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Abbott, John S. Ferdinand de Soto: The Discoverer of the Mississippi (New York: Dodd & Mead, 1873)
  • Bell, Robert E. Ferdinandina: Biography of a French-Indian Trading Community on the Southern Plains, 2 vols. (Norman: N.P., 1979)
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene, ed. and trans., Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1768–1780, 2 vols. (Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1914)
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene. Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1949)
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene, ed. Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916)
  • Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972)
  • Curths, Karen. "The Routes of French and Spanish Explorers Penetration into Oklahoma," Red River Valley Historical Review 6 (Summer 1981)
  • Foreman, Grant. "Early Trails through Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 3 (June 1925)
  • Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey, eds. Don Juan de Onate: Colonizer of New Mexico, 1595–1628 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1953)
  • Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey, eds. and trans., Narratives of the Coronado Expedition 1540–1542 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1940)
  • Lewis, Anna. "Du Tisne's Expedition into Oklahoma, 1719," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 3 (December 1925)
  • Lewis, Anna. "French Interests and Activities in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (September 1924)
  • Lewis, Anna. "La Harpe's First Expedition in Oklahoma, 1718–1719," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (December 1925)
  • McRill, Leslie. "A Review of the De Soto Expedition in Territories of our Present Southern United States," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 39 (Spring 1961)
  • McRill, Leslie. "Fernandina: First White Settlement in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 41 (Summer 1963)
  • McRill, Leslie. "La Harpe's First Expedition into Oklahoma, 1719," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (December 1924)
  • Phares, Ross. Cavalier in the Wilderness: The Story of the Explorer and Trader Louis Juchereau de St. Denis (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1952)
  • Schafer, Delbert F. "French Explorers in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 55 (Winter 1977–78)
  • Simmons, Marc. The Last Conquistador: Juan de Onate and the Settling of the Far Southwest (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991)
  • Smith, Ralph A., trans. "Account of the Journey of Bernard de la Harpe," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 62 (July 1958–January 1959)
  • Thomas, A.B. "Spanish Exploration of Oklahoma, 1599–1792," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 6 (1928)
  • Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987)
  • Tyson, Carl N. The Red River in Southwestern History (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)
  • Vigil, Ralph H., Frances W. Kaye, and John R. Wunder, eds. Spain and the Plains: Myths and Realities of Spanish Exploration and Settlement on the Great Plains (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1994)
  • Wedel, Mildred Mott. "Claude-Charles Dutisne: A Review of His 1719 Journeys, Part 2" Great Plains Journal (Spring 1972)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Early Navigation and Commerce Along the Arkansas and Red Rivers in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 8 (March 1930)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Some Geographic Names of French Origin in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 7 (June 1929)

Audio/Visual

  • "Composite Historical Map, 1519–1821" (PREMAP.CHAPMAN.0001, Berlin B. Chapman Collection, OHS)
  • "Coronado's Route in Oklahoma, 1541–1542" (1986.061, Minor Collections, M1986.061 location 1010.04, OHS)
  • "Leavenworth-Dodge Expedition" (Joseph Thoburn Collection, folders 26–28)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Allen, Henry Easton. "The Parilla Expedition to the Red River in 1759," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 43 (July 1939)
  • Blaine, Martha Royce, "French Efforts to Reach Santa Fe: Andre Fabry de la Bruyere's Voyage Up the Canadian River in 1741–1742," Louisiana History 20 (April 1979)
  • Chipman, Donald E. Spanish Texas 1519–1821 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992)
  • Duncan, David Ewing. Hernando de Soto: A Savage Quest in the Americas (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996)
  • Flint, Richard and Shirley Cushing Flint, eds. The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: the 1540–1542 Route Across the Southwest (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1997)
  • Odell, George H. La Harpe's Post: A Tale of French-Wichita Contact on the Eastern Plains (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002)
  • Weddle, Robert S. The French Thorn: Rival Explorers in the Spanish Sea, 1682–1762 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1991)



  1. Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans regarding land ownership and trading practices.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Brown, Donald N. "Immigration"
Green, Donald E. "Settlement Patterns"
Hurt, Douglas A. "Three Forks Area"
Vehik, Susan C. "Precontact Trade Patterns"
Warner, Larkin. "Oklahoma Economy"

Research Center Resources

Library

  • Billington, Ray Allen and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (rev. ed., Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001)
  • Foreman, Grant. "The Three Forks," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (March 1924)
  • Gregg, Josiah. Commerce of the Prairies, ed. by Max L. Moorhead (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954)
  • Hale, Douglas. "European Immigrants in Oklahoma: A Survey," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 53 (Summer 1975)
  • Walker, Jerald. "The Difficulty of Celebrating an Invasion," in An Oklahoma I Had Never Seen Before: Alternative Views of Oklahoma History, ed. Davis C. Joyce (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)
  • Wright, Muriel. "Early Navigation and Commerce Along the Arkansas and Red Rivers in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 8 (March 1930)

Audio/Visual

  • "The Three Forks Country" (HISMAP.0069, Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Warner, Larkin. "An Overview of Oklahoma's Economic History," Oklahoma Business Bulletin (September and December 1995)



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