Home > History Center >  High School Guides

High School: Oklahoma History Content Skills

Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

Oklahoma History Center EDUCATION RESOURCES

American Indians in Oklahoma trunk and e-exhibit: trunk description | e-exhibit
(Okietales) Cowboy trunk: trunk description
Dust Bowl and Great Depression trunk: trunk description
Dust Bowl Housewife living history
(Okietales) Pioneer Life trunk: trunk description
Land Run of 1889 e-exhibit
Pioneer Woman living history




  1. Summarize and analyze the role of river transportation to early trade and mercantile settlements including Chouteau's Trading Post at Three Forks.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Crisman, Kevin. "Heroine (steamboat)"
Hurt, Douglas A. "Auguste Pierre Chouteau," "Chouteau Family"
Johnson, Kenneth S. "Rivers and Streams"
May, Jon D. "Edward's Post"
O'Dell, Larry. "Colbert's Ferry," "Ferries and Fords," "Warren's Post"
Roberson, Glen. "Red River Raft"
Tolman, Keith. "Steamboats and Landings"
Tower, Michael. "Shirley Trading Company"
Wilson, Linda D. "Wewoka Trading Company"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Caldwell, Norman. "The Red River Raft," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 19 (September 1941)
  • Christian, Shirley. Before Lewis and Clark: The Story of the Chouteaus, the French Dynasty that Ruled America's Frontier (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004)
  • Clift, W.H. "Warren's Trading Post," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (June 1924)
  • Crockett, Bernice Norman. "Across the Muddy Red," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 61 (Winter 1983–84)
  • "Dr. John Shirley " Chickasaw Biographies (vertical file, OHS)
  • "Edward's Trading Post" (Grant Foreman Collection, OHS)
  • "Ferries" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Flores, Dan. Jefferson and Southwestern Exploration: The Freeman and Curtis Accounts of the Red River (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984)
  • Fly, Shelby M. The Saga of the Chouteaus of Oklahoma: French Footprints in the Valley Grand (Norman: Levite of Apache, 1988)
  • Foley, William E. and Charles David Rice, "Compounding the Risks: International Politics, Wartime Dislocations and Auguste Chouteau's Fur Trading Operations, 1792–1815," Missouri Historical Society Bulletin 34 (April 1978)
  • Foreman, Grant. "River Navigation in the Early Southwest," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 15 (June 1928)
  • Grant Foreman Collection (box 15, folders 13–17, OHS)
  • "Heroine" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Hightower, Michael J. "The Riverboat Frontier: Early-Day Commerce in the Arkansas and Red River Valleys," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 89 (Summer 2011)
  • Hunter, Louis C. Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History (2nd ed.; New York: Dover Publications, 1993)
  • Hurt, Douglas A. "Brothers of Influence: Auguste and Pierre Chouteau and the Osages Before 1804," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 78 (Fall 2000)
  • Johnson, Kenneth S. and Kenneth V. Luza. "Rivers, Streams, and Lakes of Oklahoma," Earth Sciences and Mineral Resources of Oklahoma, Educational Publication 9 (Norman: Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2004)
  • Morris, Wayne. "Auguste Pierre Chouteau, Merchant Prince at the Three Forks of the Arkansas," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 48 (Summer 1970)
  • Morrison, W.B. "Colbert Ferry on Red River, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, Recollections of John Malcolm, Pioneer Ferryman," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 16 (September 1938)
  • Morrison, W.B. "The Passing of the Ferryman," Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City), 5 January 1930
  • Oklahoma's Water Atlas (Norman: Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 1984)
  • "Taxes, Traders, Trading Posts, Trails, Trees, Trivia," (Federal Writers' Project Collection, box 79, folder 7–13, OHS)
  • Thoburn, Joseph B. Oklahoma: A History of the State and its People, Vol. 2 (New York: Lewis Publishing Co., Inc., 1929)
  • Tolman, Keith. "Tea Kettle on a Raft: A History of Navigation on the Upper Red River," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 81 (Winter 2003–2004)
  • Tower, Michael. "Traders Along the Washita: A Short History of the Shirley Trading Company," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 65 (Spring 1987)
  • Tyson, Carl Newton. The Red River in Southwestern History (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)
  • Westbrook, Harriette Johnson. "The Chouteaus and Their Commercial Enterprises, Part I and II," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 11 (June/September 1933)
  • "Wewoka Trading Company" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Early Navigation and Commerce Along the Arkansas and Red Rivers of Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 8 (March 1930)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "Historic Places on the Old Stage Line From Fort Smith to Red River," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 11 (June 1933)

Audio/Visual

  • "An Illustrated Map of the Oklahoma Country or the Indian Territory West of Arkansas, 1939" (HISMAP.HAMMETT.0002, Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)
  • "Crossings-Ferries" (Frederick S. Barde Collection, box 2, OHS)
  • "Crossings-Ferries" (Heye Foundation Collection, box 2, OHS)
  • "Ferries, Bridges, or Toll Gates" (Indian Archives, box 44, OHS)
  • Frances Rosser Brown interview, 3/9/1984 (H1984.932, Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection, OHS)
  • "Horse Drawn Carriage in River" (Fred Long Collection, box 1, OHS)
  • "Marker for Site of Edward's Trading Post and Texas Trail at Fort Holmes" (21012, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • "Steamboats, 1911–1936" (Joseph Thoburn Collection, box 33, folder 7, OHS)
  • "Steamboats on the Arkansas River in Muskogee, Oklahoma" (12250.2, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • "Three Forks Country" (HISMAP.0110, Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)
  • "Transportation, Ships, Steamboats," and "Crossings-Ferries-Arkansas River" (Grant Foreman Collection, OHS)
  • "We Found the Ferries Obstructed by Masses of Floating Ice" (21128.209, Edward King Collection, OHS)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Kane, Adam I. The Western River Steamboat (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004)
  • Lecompte, Janet. "Auguste Pierre Chouteau," The Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West, Vol. 9, ed. Leroy R. Hafen (Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1972)



  1. Describe the major trading and peacekeeping goals of early military posts including Fort Gibson.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Agnew, Brad. "Fort Gibson (fort)"
May, Jon D. "Fort Coffee (fort)," "Fort Washita," "Fort Wayne"
Norris, L. David. "Fort Arbuckle," "Fort Cobb (fort)"
Savage, Cynthia. "Fort Cobb (town)"
Tolman, Keith. "Fort Towson (fort)"
Veenendall, Jr., Augustus J. "Fort Smith and Western Railway"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Agnew, Brad. Fort Gibson: Terminal on the Trail of Tears (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Bearss, Edwin C. and Arrell M. Gibson. Fort Smith: Little Gibraltar on the Arkansas (2nd ed., Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979)
  • Captain William Graham and Mary Baird interview, 1926 (M1998.055, William Graham Baird Papers, folder 1, OHS)
  • Choctaw Nation Townsites (Dawes Commission Records, box 1 and 2, OHS)
  • Foreman, Grant. Fort Gibson: A Brief History (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936)
  • "Fort Cobb" and "Caddo County" (vertical files, OHS)
  • "Fort Cobb" (Minor Collections, OHS)
  • Fort Gibson Collection (OHS)
  • Frazer, Robert W. Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios, and Posts Commonly Called Forts, West of the Mississippi River to 1898 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965)
  • Goetzmann, William H. Army Exploration in the American West, 1803–1863 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959)
  • "History of Fort Cobb" (Minor Collections, OHS)
  • Howard II, James A. "Fort Washita," in Early Military Forts and Posts in Oklahoma, ed. Odie B. Faulk, Kenny A. Franks, and Paul F. Lambert (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1978)
  • Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. and Lonnie E. Underhill, "Fort Coffee and Frontier Affairs, 1834–1838," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 54 (Fall 1976)
  • McGuigan, Patrick B. "Bulwark of the American Frontier: A History of Fort Towson," in Early Military Forts and Posts in Oklahoma, ed. Odie B. Faulk, Kenny A. Franks, and Paul F. Lambert (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1978)
  • Milligan, James C. and L. David Norris, "Keeping the Peace: William H. Emory and the Command at Fort Arbuckle," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 69 (Fall 1991)
  • Morrison, W.B. "Fort Arbuckle," "Fort Washita," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 6 (March 1928)
  • Morrison, William Brown. Military Posts and Camps in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing Corporation, 1936)
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783–1846 (1969; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986)
  • Wright, Muriel H. "A History of Fort Cobb," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 34 (Spring 1956)

Audio/Visual

  • Amiel Weeks Whipple Collection (folder 21–23, 26, OHS)
  • "Ruins From an Original Building" (Muriel Wright Collection, OHS)
  • "Fort Arbuckle" (M1997.025, Katie Grant Allen Collection, folders 7–12, OHS)
  • "Fort Gibson Stockade" (Frank Parman Collection, OHS)
  • "Fort Towson" (Alvin Rucker Collection, box 1, OHS)
  • "Fort Towson" (Grant Foreman Collection, box 2, OHS)
  • "Fort Washita," "Fort Wayne" (George Shirk Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Map of the Route Pursued by U.S. Troops from Fort Smith, Arkansas to Santa Fe, New Mexico" (HISMAP.011, Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection, OHS)
  • "Soldiers' Tents in Fort Gibson" (15883, Aylesworth Album Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection

  • Katie Grant Allen interview, 5/10/1983 (H1983.105)
  • William Vandever interview, 2/23/1988 (H1998.018)

Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection

  • Bird's Eye View Drawing of Fort Cobb, 1859 (10332.B)
  • B.Z. Gannaway photographs
  • "Fort Gibson"
  • "Fort Towson" towns, box 2
  • "Fort Washita" towns, box 2
  • "Ruins of Fort Washita" towns, box 2
  • "View of Officers' Quarters at Fort Gibson" (23347)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Bryant Jr., Keith L. "Railroad Redundant: The Fort Smith & Western Railway," Railroad History 174 (Spring 1996)



  1. Integrate visual and textual evidence to explain the reasons for and trace the migrations of Native American peoples including the Five Tribes into present-day Oklahoma, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and tribal resistance to the forced relocations.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Burns, Louis F. "Osage (tribe)"
Clough, Josh. "United Keetowah Band"
Eddings, Anna. "Opothleyahola," "Stephen Foreman"
Everett, Dianna. "Apache Tribe of Oklahoma"
Fowler, Loretta. "Arapaho, Southern"
Frank, Andrew K. "Indian Removal," "Seminole (tribe)," "Trail of Tears (term)"
Isham, Theodore and Blue Clark, "Creek (Mvskoke)"
Jackson, Jason Baird. "Yuchi (Euchee)"
Johansen, Bruce E. "Micanopy"
Kavanagh, Thomas W. "Comanche (tribe)"
Kidwell, Clara Sue. "Choctaw (tribe)"
Koenig, Pamela. "Miami (tribe)"
Kracht, Benjamin R. "Kiowa (tribe)"
Kraft, Lisa A. "Citizen Potawatomi"
Kuhlman, Annette. "Kickapoo"
Logt, Mark Van De, "Ponca"
Lovett, John R. "Ottawa"
May, Jon D. "Iowa," "John Jumper," "Otoe-Missouria," "Seneca-Cayuga," "Tonkawa (tribe)"
McCollum, Timothy James. "Delaware, Western," "Quapaw (tribe)," "Sac and Fox"
Moulton, Gary E. "John Ross"
arks, Douglas R. "Pawnee (tribe)"
Pate, James P. "Chickasaw"
Pool, Carolyn Garrett. "Wichita"
Roberson, Glen. "Peoria (tribe)"
Self, Burl E. "Modoc," "Dull Knife"
Smith, Pamela A. "Shawnee, Absentee," "Shawnee, Eastern," "Shawnee Tribe (Loyal Shawnee)"
Stansfield, Rick. "Wyandotte (tribe)"
Strickland, Rennard. "Cherokee (tribe)"
Unrau, William E. "Kaw (Kansa)"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Agnew, Brad. Fort Gibson: Terminal on the Trail of Tears (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991)
  • Anson, Bert. The Miami Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970)
  • Baird, W. David. The Quapaw Indians: A History of the Downstream People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Berthrong, Donald J. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976)
  • Blaine, Martha Royce. The Ioway Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979)
  • Brown, Donald N. and Lee Irwin, "Ponca," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 13, Plains, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001)
  • Burns, Louis F. A History of the Osage People (Fallbrook, CA: Ciga Press, 1989)
  • Callender, Charles. "Shawnee," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978)
  • Carlisle, Jeffrey D. "Tonkawa Indians," in The New Handbook of Texas, ed. Ron Tyler (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996)
  • Chapman, Berlin B. "Establishment of the Iowa Reservation," and "Dissolution of the Iowa Reservation," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 21, 14 (December 1943/December 1936)
  • Chapman, Berlin B. "Establishment of the Wichita Reservation," and "Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 11, 22, (December 1933/Part I, Summer 1944; Part II, Fall 1944)
  • Chapman, Berlin Basil. The Otoe and Missouria: A Study of Indian Removal and the Legal Aftermath (Oklahoma City, OK: Times Journal Publishing Co., 1965)
  • Conley, Robert J. Cherokee Encyclopedia (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007)
  • Debo, Angie. And Still the Waters Run: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940)
  • Debo, Angie. The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (2nd ed., Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961)
  • Edmunds, R. David. The Potawatomis: Keeper of the Fire (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1978)
  • Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. "John Jumper," "The Jumper Family of the Seminole Nation," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 29 and 34 (Summer 1951/Fall 1956)
  • Foreman, Grant. The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, Seminole (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934)
  • Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932)
  • Foreman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians: An Account of the Removal of the Indians from North of the Ohio River (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946)
  • Foreman, Minta Ross. "Reverend Stephen Foreman, Cherokee Missionary," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 18 (September 1940)
  • Gibson, Arrell M. The Chickasaws (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972)
  • Goddard, Ives. "Delaware," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978)
  • Green, Michael D. The Creeks (New York: Chelsea House, 1990)
  • Hagan, William T. The Sac and Fox Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958)
  • Howard, James H. The Ponca Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995)
  • Hurtado, Albert A. "The Modocs and the Jones Family Indian Ring: Quaker Administration of the Quapaw Agency, 1873–1879," in Oklahoma's Forgotten Indians, ed. Robert E. Smith (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
  • Kavanagh, Thomas W. The Comanches: A History (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999)
  • King, Duane. The Cherokee Trail of Tears (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Books, c2008)
  • Littlefield, Daniel F. and James W. Parins, eds. Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal, Volume 1, A-Z, (Greenwood Press, 2011)
  • Malinowski, Sharon. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (Detroit: Gale, c1998)
  • Meserve, John Bartlett. "Chief Opothleyahola," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 9 (December 1931)
  • Moulton, Gary E. John Ross, Cherokee Chief (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978)
  • Murphy, Joseph. Potawatomi of the West: Origins of the Citizen Brand (Shawnee, OK: Citizen Band Potawatomi Tribe, 1994)
  • "Ottawa" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Parks, Douglas R. "Pawnee," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 13, Plains, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001)
  • Perdue, Theda. The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears (New York: Viking, 2007)
  • Pierce, Earl Boyd and Rennard Strickland. The Cherokee People (Phoenix, AZ: Indian Tribal Series, 1973)
  • Roberson, Glen. "The Homeless Peoria," in Oklahoma's Forgotten Indians, ed. Robert E. Smith (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
  • Smith, F. Todd. The Caddos, The Wichitas, and the United States, 1846–1901 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000)
  • Speck, Frank G. Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians (Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1909)
  • Strickland, Rennard. The Indians of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)
  • Sturtevant, William C. "Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978)
  • Thompson, Vern E. "A History of the Quapaw," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 33 (Autumn 1955)
  • Tooker, Elisabeth. "Wyandot," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978)
  • Unrau, William E. The Kansa Indians: A History of the Wind People, 1673–1873 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971)
  • Valley, Doris and Mary M. Lembcke, eds., The Peorias: A History of the Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma (Miami, OK: The Peoria Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, 1991)
  • Weslager, C.A. The Delaware Indians: A History (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1972)
  • Wishart, David J. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994)
  • Wright, Murial H. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1951)
  • Woodward, Grace Steele. The Cherokees (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963)

Audio/Visual

  • "Chief John Ross" (5357, Grant Foreman Collection, OHS)
  • "Chief Opothleyahola, Copy from McKenney and Hall Lithograph of 1837" (704, Mrs. Redbird Smith Collection, OHS)
  • "Dodson Map of Trail of Tears" (M1990.052 location 1093.05, Minor Collections, OHS)
  • "John Ross" (6067, J.B. Milan Collection, OHS)
  • "John Ross-Colored Lithograph of 1837 After An Updated Painting by Charles Bird King, Washington, DC" (20516.3.23, McKenney-Hall Collection, OHS)
  • "Micanopy 1837 Lithograph After 1826, Painting by Charles Bird King" (20516.2.43, McKenney-Hall Collection, OHS)
  • "Part of Chief Dull Knife's Band of Captured Northern Cheyenne at Dodge City, Kansas, 1879" (3988, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection)
  • "Reverend John Jumper" (1516, Frank H. Reed Collection, OHS)
  • Trail of Tears Pageant interviews, 1971 (LL 293, LL 294, Living Legends Oral History Collection, OHS)
  • "Trail of Tears" (Thomas Foreman Home Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection:

  • Anna Langley and Ella May Prophet interview, 5/21/1983 (H1983.114)
  • Luther Checotah interview, 8/27/1984 (H1984.104)
  • Virginia Watson Thomas interview, 8/28/1984 (H1984.107)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

.
  • Hoig, Stan. Perilous Pursuit: The U.S. Cavalry and the Northern Cheyennes (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002)
  • King, Duane, ed. The Cherokee Indian Nation: A Troubled History (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1979)
  • Monnett, John H. Tell Them We Are Going Home (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001)
  • Parker, Sandra. "U.K.B. of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma," Cherokee Observer (Blackwell, OK), September 1997
  • Perdue, Theda and Michael D. Green, ed. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents (Boston: Bedford Books of St Martin's Press, 1995)
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)



  1. Summarize the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction Treaties on Native American peoples, territories, and tribal sovereignty including the
    1. Required enrollment of the Freedmen,
    2. Second Indian Removal and the role of the Buffalo Soldiers,
    3. Significance of the Massacre at the Washita,
    4. Reasons for the reservation system, and
    5. Establishment of the western military posts of Fort Sill, Fort Supply, and Fort Reno

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Black, Stephen. "Battle of the Washita"
Everett, Dianna. "Indian Territory"
Glasrud, Bruce A. "Buffalo Soldiers"
Hartzog, Martha. "Fort Smith Council"
Hoig, Stan. "Fort Reno"
Hughes, Michael A. "Military, Nineteenth Century"
Huston, James L. "Civil War Era"
Janda, Lance. "Fort Sill"
Pennington, William D. "Reconstruction Treaties"
Rea, Bob. "Fort Supply (fort)"
Reese, Linda. "Freedmen"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Abel, Annie Heloise. The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War (Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1919)
  • Abel, Annie Heloise. The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist: An Omitted Chapter in the Diplomatic History of the Southern Confederacy (Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1915)
  • Abel, Annie Heloise. The American Indian Under Reconstruction (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1925)
  • Andrews, Thomas F. "Freedmen in Indian Territory: A Post Civil War Dilemma," Journal of the West 4 (July 1965)
  • Bailey, Minnie E. Reconstruction in Indian Territory: A Story of Avarice, Discrimination, and Opportunism (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1972)
  • Baker, Carolyn. Fort Reno: The Military Post (El Reno, OK: C. Baker, 1993)
  • Baker, T. Lindsay and Julie P. Baker. The WPA Oklahoma Slave Narratives (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996)
  • Billington, Ray Allen and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001).
  • Brill, Charles. Conquest of the Southern Plains: Uncensored Narrative of the Battle of the Washita and Custer's Southern Campaign (1938; Oklahoma City: Golden Saga Publishers, c1938)
  • Burton, Jeffrey. Indian Territory and the United States, 1866–1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma Statehood (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)
  • Carriker, Robert C. Fort Supply, Indian Territory: Frontier Outpost on the Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990)
  • Deloria, Jr., Vine, ed. American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985)
  • Derrick, W. Edwin. "Fort Reno: Defender of the Southern Plain," in Early Military Forts and Posts in Oklahoma, ed. Odie B. Faulk, Kenny A. Franks, and Paul F. Lambert (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1978)
  • Fischer, LeRoy H., ed. The Civil War Era in Indian Territory (Los Angeles: Lorrin L. Morrison, 1974)
  • Fowler, Arlen L. The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971)
  • Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. The Blacks in Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
  • Frazer, Robert W. Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios, and Posts Commonly Called Forts, West of the Mississippi River to 1898 (3rd ed; Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988)
  • Greene, Jerome. Washita: The U.S. Army and the Southern Cheyennes, 1867–1869 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004)
  • Halliburton, R. Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977)
  • Hoig, Stan. The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867–69 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976)
  • James, Parthena L. "Reconstruction in the Chickasaw Nation: The Freedmen Problem," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 45 (Summer 1967)
  • Kappler, Charles. Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. 4, Laws (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1913)
  • Kenner, Charles L. Buffalo Soldiers and Officers of the Ninth Cavalry, 1867–1898 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999)
  • Kremer, Gary R. "For Justice and a Fee: James Milton Turner and the Cherokee Freedmen," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 58 (Winter 1980–81)
  • Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967)
  • Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979)
  • Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to American Citizenship (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978)
  • Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a Country (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980)
  • Littlefield, Daniel F. and James W. Parins, eds. Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal, Volume 1, A-Z, (Greenwood Press, 2011)
  • Morrison, William Brown. Military Posts and Camps in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing Corporation, 1936)
  • Nye, Wilbur S. Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill (3rd ed., rev.; Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
  • Nye, Wilbur S. Plains Indian Raiders: The Final Phases of Warfare from the Arkansas to the Red River (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968)
  • Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540–1866 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979)
  • Porter, Kenneth W. The Negro on the American Frontier (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1971)
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984)
  • Rampp, Lary. "Negro Troop Activity in Indian Territory, 1863–1865," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 47 (Spring 1969)
  • Rampp, Larry C. and Donald L. Rampp. The Civil War in the Indian Territory (Austin, TX: Presidial Press, 1975)
  • Teall, Kaye M. Black History in Oklahoma: A Resource Book (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Public Schools, 1971)
  • Thoburn, Joseph B. and Murial H. Wright. Oklahoma: A History of the State and Its People, Vol. 1 (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, Co., 1929)
  • Utley, Robert M. Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866–1891 (1973; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984)
  • Utley, Robert M. Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1848–1865 (1967; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981)
  • Wickett, Murray R. Contested Territory: Whites, Native Americans, and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1865–1907 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000)
  • Wilson, Walt. "Freedmen in Indian Territory During Reconstruction," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (Summer 1971)
  • Wooster, Robert. The Military and United States Indian Policy, 1865–1903 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988)
  • Wright, Muriel H. and LeRoy H. Fischer, "Civil War Sites in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 44 (Summer 1966)

Audio/Visual

  • Alvin Rucker Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Aylesworth Album Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Chickasaw Freedmen Filing on Allotments, Tishomingo, OK" (3759, W.P. Campbell Collection, OHS)
  • Frederick S. Barde Collection (photographs, box 2, OHS)
  • "Indians-Fort Sill" (Alvin Rucker Collection, photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Indians-Fort Sill" (Frederick S. Barde Collection, photographs, box 2, OHS)
  • John Young Bryce Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Josiah Butler Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • R.N. Whitehead Collection (photographs, OHS)
  • Thomas Foreman Home Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Toney Lackey Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Film and Video Archive, YouTube Channel

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection

  • Ann Powell interview, 3/4/1980 (H1987.100)
  • Charles Davis interview (H1987.053)
  • Irene Potts interview, 3/29/1963 (H1984.068)
  • James Nero interview, 12/5/1985 (H1985.160)
  • Ruth Wheatley interview, 11/1/1982 (H1982.004)
  • Watson Mithlo interview, 6/29/1987 (H1987.238)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Grinde, Donald A. and Quintard Taylor. "Red vs. Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post Civil War Indian Territory," American Indian Quarterly 10 (Summer 1984)
  • Hoig, Stan. Fort Reno and the Indian Territory Frontier (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000)
  • Hughes, Michael. "Nations Asunder, Part II: Reservation and Eastern Indians During the American Civil War, 1861–1865," Journal of the Indian Wars 1:4 (2000)
  • May, Katja. African Americans and Native Americans in the Creek and Cherokee Nations, 1830s to 1920s (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996)
  • Savage, W. Sherman. "The Role of Negro Soldiers in Protecting the Indian Territory from Intruders," Journal of Negro History 36 (January 1951)
  • Taylor, Quintard. "Comrades of Color: Buffalo Soldiers in the West: 1866–1917," Colorado Heritage (Spring 1996)
  • Washita Battlefield, National Register of Historic Places and Properties, National Park Service



  1. Cite specific visual and textual evidence to assess the impact of the cattle and coal mining industries on the location of railroad lines, transportation routes, and the development of communities.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Dary, David. "Cattle Drives"
Goostree, Eric. "Mining Towns"
Sewell, Steven L. "Coal"
Tyson, Carl N. "Western Trail"
Veenendall Jr., Augustus J. "Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway," "Fort Smith and Western Railway," "Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway," "Oklahoma Central Railway," "Railroads"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Drago, Harry Sinclair. Great American Cattle Trails: The Story of the Old Cow Paths of the East and the Longhorn Highways of the Plains (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965)
  • Gard, Wayne. The Chisholm Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988)
  • Gard, Wayne. "The Impact of the Cattle Trails," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 71 (July 1967)
  • "Ghost Towns" (vertical file, OHS)
  • Gibson, Arrell M. "Early Mining Camps in Northeastern Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 34 (Summer 1956)
  • Hayes, William Edward. Iron Road to Empire: The History of 100 Years of the Progress and Achievements of the Rock Island Lines (New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1953)
  • Hightower, Michael J. "Cattle, Coal and Indian Land: A Tradition of Mining in Southeastern Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 62 (Spring 1984)
  • Hofsommer, Donovan L., ed. Railroads in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977)
  • Johnson, Walter A. "Brief History of the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad Lines," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 24 (Autumn 1946)
  • Koplowitz, Bradford. "The Rock Island Line is a Mighty Good Line–to Research," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 66 (Summer 1988)
  • Masterson, V.V. The Katy Railroad and the Last Frontier (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978)
  • Morris, John W. Ghost Towns of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977)
  • Riegel, Robert E. The Story of the Western Railroads, from 1852 through the Reign of the Giants (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964)
  • Skaggs, Jimmy M. "Cattle Trails in Oklahoma," in Ranch and Range in Oklahoma, ed. Jimmy M. Skaggs (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1978)
  • Stover, John F. The Routledge Historical Atlas of the American Railroads (New York: Routledge, 1999)

Audio/Visual

  • E.F. Gutensohn Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Fred Drummond Home Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Kent Ruth Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • Parks Family Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)
  • "Work Crew of 13" (21110.30, Hedrick-Powell Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection

  • "Indian Territory-Showing Railroad Systems" (ITMAP.0217, ITMAP.0192, ITMAP.0193)
  • "Oklahoma and Indian Territories-Showing Railroad Information, 1898" (OTMAP.0038)
Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection

  • Earl Canady interview, 11/22/1982 (H1982.038)
  • James Phelan interview, 4/27/1983 (H1983.095)
  • John M. Moore interview, 11/22/1982 (H1982.037)
  • Lucian B. Jackson Jr. interview, 12/20/1982 (H1982.064)
  • Phillip Keith interview, 2/8/1984 (H1984.009)
  • Ray Van Boskirk interview, 6/27/1985 (H1985.124)
  • R.H. Chappel interview, 6/14/1985 (H1985.118)
  • Robert Michael Maney interview, 5/16/1979 (H1987.073)
  • Robert Selman interview, 8/29/1985 (H1985.141)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Berry, Shelley. Small Towns, Ghost Memories of Oklahoma: A Photographic Narrative of Hamlets and Villages Throughout Oklahoma's Seventy-seven Counties (Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Company Publishers, 2004)



  1. Analyze the influence of the idea of Manifest Destiny on the Boomer Movement including the official closing of the frontier in 1890.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Baird, W. David. "Westward Expansion"
Hoig, Stan. "Boomer Movement," "Land Run of 1889"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Billington, Ray Allen and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (1949; rev. ed., Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001)
  • Chapman, Berlin B. Federal Management and Disposition of the Lands of the Oklahoma Territory, 1866–1907 (1931; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1979)
  • David Payne Papers (OHS)
  • Foreman, Grant. Pioneer Days in the Early Southwest (Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1926)
  • Hoig, Stan. Beyond the Frontier: Exploring the Indian Country (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998)
  • Hoig, Stan. David L. Payne, the Oklahoma Boomer (Oklahoma City: Western Heritage Books, 1980)
  • Moore, Gordon. "Registers, Receivers, and Entrymen: U.S. Land Office Administration in Oklahoma Territory, 1889–1907," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Spring 1989)
  • Peery, Dan. "Colonel Crocker and the Boomer Movement," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 13 (September 1935)
  • Rister, Carl Coke. Land Hunger: David L. Payne and the Oklahoma Boomers (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1942)
  • Stout, Jr., Joseph A. ed., Frontier Adventurers: American Exploration in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1976)
  • Warde, Mary Jane. "Fight for Survival: The Indian Response to the Boomer Movement," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Spring 1989)

Audio/Visual

  • "Captain David L. Payne" (15118.1. Muriel Wright Collection, OHS)
  • "David L. Payne, 1860s–2006" (18792, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • "David L. Payne During the 1860s" (15261.2, Joseph Thoburn Collection, OHS)



  1. Compare and contrast multiple points of view to evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act which resulted in the loss of tribal communal lands and the redistribution of lands by various means including land runs as typified by the Unassigned Lands and the Cherokee Outlet, lotteries, and tribal allotments.

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OKLAHOMA HISTORY AND CULTURE

Blackburn, Bob L. "Unassigned Lands"
Carter, Kent. "Dawes Commission"
Everett, Dianna. "Land Openings"
Green, Donald E. "Settlement Patterns"
Kidwell, Clara Sue. "Allotment"
Turner, Alvin O. "Cherokee Outlet Opening"
Turner, Kenneth R. "No Man's Land"

RESEARCH CENTER RESOURCES

Library

  • Agnew, Brad. "Voices from the Land Run of 1889," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Spring 1989)
  • Baldwin, Kathlyn. The 89ers: Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 (Oklahoma City: Western Heritage Books, 1981)
  • Brown, Elmer E. "No Man's Land," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 4 (March 1926)
  • Burton, Jeffrey. Indian Territory and the United States, 1866–1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma Statehood (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)
  • Chapman, Berlin B. "Cherokee Allotments in the Outlet," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 59 (Winter 1981–82)
  • Cherokee Outlet Land Opening Collection, 1893–1905 (OHS)
  • Deloria, Jr., Vine, ed., American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985)
  • Gibson, Arrell M. "The Centennial Legacy of the General Allotment Act," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 65 (Fall 1987)
  • Gittinger, Roy. The Formation of the State of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939)
  • Green, Donald E. "The Oklahoma Land Run of 1889: A Centennial Re-Interpretation," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Summer 1989)
  • Hagan, William T. Taking Indian Lands: The Cherokee (Jerome) Commission 1889–1893 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003)
  • Hoig, Stan. The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1984)
  • Hoxie, Frederick E. A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984)
  • Lamar, Howard R. "The Creation of Oklahoma: New Meanings for the Oklahoma Land Run," in The Culture of Oklahoma, ed. Howard F. Stein and Robert F. Hill (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993)
  • Miner, H. Craig. "Cherokee Sovereignty in the Gilded Age: The Outlet Question," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 71 (Summer 1993)
  • Morris, John W., ed. Boundaries of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1980)
  • Otis, D.S. The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Land, ed. Francis Paul Prucha (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973)
  • Rister, Carl Coke. No Man's Land (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1948)
  • Turner, Alvin O. "Order and Disorder: The Opening of the Cherokee Outlet," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 71 (Summer 1993)
  • Wade, J.S. "Uncle Sam's Horse Race: Opening of the Cherokee Strip," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 35 (Summer 1957)
  • Wardell, Morris L. "The History of No Man's Land, or Old Beaver County," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 35 (Spring 1957)

Audio/Visual

  • "Hopeful Homesteaders Gambling in the Streets, the Unassigned Lands in the Background Across the South Canadian River, prior to April 22nd, 1889" (1764, D.S. Mitchell Collection, OHS)
  • "Ready for the Race, April 22nd, 1899" (3946, H.R. Voth Collection, OHS)
  • 'The Race"' (10601, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)
  • '"The Start' Cherokee Outlet Land Opening" (18654, Carl Sadler Collection, OHS)
  • "Wagon Train Crossing into I.T. South of Arkansas City, Kansas, Traveling to Unassigned Lands Opening on April 22nd, 1889, April 18–19, 1889 (19535.5, Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection

  • Ben Blansit interview, 5/9/1985 (H1985.090)
  • Clarence Hampton interview, 11/10/1983 (H1985.173)
  • Goldie Murphy interview, 3/16/1984, Iva Potter interview, 3/31/1974 (H1987.173)
  • Laura Crews interview (LL 17.1, Living Legends Oral History Collection)

 Oklahoma Historical Society Map Collection

  • "Correct Map of the Oklahoma Country and Cherokee Outlet Reached via the Missouri Pacific Railway and Iron Mountain Route, 1889" (HISMAP.0053)
  • "Map of the Cherokee Strip, Indian Territory, 1884" (HISMAP.0086)
  • "Map of Indian Territory, After 1890"
  • "Map of Indian Territory, Including No Man's Land" (ITMAP.0158)
  • "The Kansas City Times Map of Oklahoma" (OTMAP.0019)



Back to High School Resource List