Glossary

General Terms

  • Absolute Monarchy: a monarchial form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government
  • American Indians: a member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
  • Authoritarian: favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom
  • Common Good: the benefit or interests of all
  • Constitutional Monarchy: a monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation
  • Country: a nation with its own government
  • Fascism: an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization
  • Heroes: people that are admired or idealized for courage, outstanding achievements, or noble qualities
  • Historic Figures: a person or people that are in the past and are considered a part of history
  • History: the study of past events, particularly in human affairs
  • Nationalism: an extreme form of patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries
  • Past: the time before the moment of speaking or writing
  • Patriotism: the belief in vigorously supporting a nation and defending it against enemies or detractors
  • Public Services: something done to benefit the public or its institutions
  • Representative Government: a system of governance by chosen representatives, usually elected from among a large group
  • Socialism: a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
  • Symbol: a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract
  • Totalitarianism: a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state
  • Traditions: customs or beliefs transmitted from generation to generation
  • United States of America: a country that occupies most of the southern half of North America as well as Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands

Geography Terms

  • Bodies of Water: parts of the Earth covered in water, like the Atlantic Ocean
  • Continents: any of the world’s main continuous expanses of land (Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America)
  • Hemisphere: a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves by an imaginary line passing through the poles.
  • Mountains: a large natural elevation of the earth’s surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level
  • Natural Features: a piece of the Earth, worthy of note, that was created by natural means, like a mountain or river
  • Physical Map: a map that displays and focuses on natural features
  • Physical Regions: a region which is distinguished by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate, such as in a desert
  • States: a nation or territory under one government
  • Territory: an area of land under a ruler or government

Military Terms

  • Alliance: a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations
  • Amphibious Assault: a military operation involving forces landed from the sea
  • Annexation: to add territory to one’s own territory by appropriation or force
  • Appeasement: pacify or placate someone or something by giving in to their demands, such as when Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of the United Kingdom offered up the nation of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany in order to prevent World War II.
  • Army: an organized military force equipped for fighting on land, typically made of two or more corps
  • Arsenal: a collection of weapons and military equipment stored by a country, person, or group
  • Artillery: large-caliber guns used in warfare on land
  • Battery: an artillery subunit of guns, men, and vehicles
  • Beachhead: a defended position on a beach taken from the enemy by landing forces from which an attack can be launched
  • Casualty: a person killed or injured in a war
  • Commitment: to be dedicated to a cause or activity
  • Company: a body of soldiers, especially the smallest subdivision of an infantry battalion, typically commanded by a major or captain
  • Conflict: a long, armed struggle
  • Corps: a main subdivision of an armed force in the field, consisting of two or more divisions
  • Courage: the ability to do something that frightens one, or the strength to accomplish something despite pain or grief
  • Division: a group of army brigades or regiments
  • Flank: the right or left side of an army or a naval force
  • Front Line: the military line or part of an army that is closest to, and actively fighting, the enemy
  • Landing Craft: a boat specially designed for putting troops and military equipment ashore on a beach
  • Mechanized Infantry: infantry that are equipped with vehicles for rapid movement over land
  • Morale: the confidence, enthusiasm, and discipline of a person or group at a particular time
  • National Guard: the primary reserve military force, partly maintained by the states but also available for federal use
  • Neutral: not helping or supporting either side in a conflict, disagreement, etc.
  • Regiment: a permanent unit of an army typically commanded by a colonel and divided into several companies, squadrons, or batteries and often into two battalions
  • Soldier: a person who serves in an army
  • Thunderbird: the thunderbird is a legendary creature in certain North American indigenous peoples' history and culture. It is considered a supernatural bird of power and strength
  • Total War Strategy: to fight a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded

Terms related to The Holocaust

  • Collaborator: a person who cooperates traitorously with an enemy
  • Concentration Camp: a place where large numbers of people, especially political prisoners or members of persecuted minorities, are deliberately imprisoned in a relatively small area with inadequate facilities, sometimes to provide forced labor or to await mass execution. The term is most strongly associated with the several hundred camps established by the Nazis in Germany and occupied Europe in 1933–45, among the most infamous being Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, and Auschwitz
  • Crematorium: a place where a dead person’s body is disposed of by burning it to ashes
  • Discrimination: the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of religion, race, age, or sex
  • Ethnic Heritage: a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on a shared social experience or ancestry
  • Eugenics: the pseudo-science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. Developed largely by Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race, it fell into disfavor after the perversion of its doctrines by the Nazis
  • Extermination: killing, especially of a whole group of people or animals
  • Forced Labor: where people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence
  • Genocide: the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation
  • Ghetto: a part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups, historically used to describe the Jewish quarter in a city
  • Holocaust: destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941–45. More than 6 million European Jews, as well as members of other persecuted groups, were murdered at concentration camps such as Auschwitz
  • Ideological: of or pertaining to a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy
  • Involuntary Migration: the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region
  • Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
  • Natural Rights: moral or legal entitlement to have or obtain something or to act in a certain way that are applied to all peoples regardless of nationality, race, sex, or creed
  • Nazi: a member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or a member of an organization with ideology similar to Nazism
  • Nazism: the ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy
  • Paramilitary: a military force that is not officially sanctioned by a nation or government
  • Perpetrator: a person who carries out or commits a harmful, illegal, or immoral action
  • Propaganda: information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular cause or point of view
  • Puppet Government: a government that is appointed by and whose affairs are directed by an outside authority that may impose hardships on those governed
  • Race: a group of people sharing the same culture, history, language, etc.
  • Regime: a government, especially an authoritarian one
  • Religion: a particular system of faith and worship, such as Judaism
  • Stereotypes: a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing
  • Typhus: an infectious disease, characterized by a purple rash, headaches, fever, and usually delirium, and historically a cause of high mortality during wars and famines. There are several forms, transmitted by vectors such as lice, ticks, mites, and rat fleas
  • War Crimes: an action carried out during the conduct of a war that violates accepted international rules of war
  • Xenophobia: intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries