This frontier fort was established by Lieutenant Theophilus Holmes who later rose to the rank of lieutenant general in the Confederate Army. Holmes built temporary barracks for troops in 1834 to serve as an advance base for troops stationed at Fort Towson. General Henry Leavenworth visited here on his 1834 expedition to the Plains Tribes.
Located on OK-48 west of Kenefic
The town was a settlement of Absentee Shawnee and Delaware on the California Road. The tribes had migrated from Ohio before 1800 and were allowed by the Choctaw National Council to remain in the area. The Absentee Shawnee occupied the site on the South Canadian River until 1857 when they moved northward to the Creek Nation and settled near Tecumseh in present Pottawatomie County.
Located on OK-12, one mile west of Atwood
Under instructions of Jefferson Davis, US Secretary of War, Lieutenant A. W. Whipple (later Major General, US Army) made the first railroad survey from Fort Smith to the Pacific Coast in 1853. With H. B. Mollhausen, artist, Jules Marcou, geologist, and other scientists in the party, they crossed here on August 10 from camp a few miles east near Shawnee Town.
Located on US-75, three to four miles south of Calvin
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