This distinctive marker identifies one of thirteen All-Black towns, out of more than fifty that once existed, remaining in Oklahoma. While Tullahassee is reportedly the oldest, most were established between 1889 and 1907 as blacks sought security and control of their own destiny in a segregated world. Most of the towns began to decline in the 1920s and 1930s as rural blacks faced economic hardships and began to move to urban areas. Boley was established in 1903 on land owned by a Creek Indian freedwoman, Abigail Barnett. Because there was already a town named Barnett in Indian Territory, the townsite was named after a white roadmaster, J. G. Boley, who persuaded the Fort Smith and Western Railroad that blacks could govern themselves. Boley was incorporated on May 11, 1905.
Located in community of Boley
Clearview was organized with a post office in September 1902. Two years later, the name was changed to Abelincoln, but that order was rescinded within a month.
Located in community of Clearview
In 1903, the town was founded by and named for deputy US Marshal Paden Tolbert who served the federal court in the Western District of Arkansas presided over by Judge Isaac C. Parker, the "hanging judge."
Located on Main Street in Paden
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Roger Mills County