OHS Historical Marker Program
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Chief's Old House
According to some this is the oldest house still standing in Oklahoma, having been built in 1832 by the federal government for Choctaw District Chief Thomas LeFlore under its treaty obligations with the Choctaw Nation. Recent scholarship indicates that the home built for LeFlore stood west of Wheelock Mission in McCurtain County. However, this old house is representative of a typical Choctaw planter's home in the mid-nineteenth century.
Located on county road, two miles northeast of Swink
This town was the commercial center of the region shortly after it was established by Josiah Doak in 1824. At one time it was the capital of the Choctaw Nation. The name of the post office at nearby Fort Towson was changed to Doaksville on November 11, 1847.
Located one mile north of Fort Towson
Dorothy Jean Orton
Orton, a lifelong Fort Towson resident and postmistress from 1953 to 1968, was a member of the Fort Towson Commission. She was a driving force in the preservation and restoration of the old fort.
Located on grounds of Fort Towson Historic Site
Colonel Matthew Arbuckle ordered the construction of the fort in May 1824 to guard the US boundary with Mexico. After Indian removals to the area in the 1830s, the fort served as a permanent army post until 1854. During the Civil War, the fort was occupied by Confederate forces. Brigadier General Stand Watie surrendered his Confederate troops here in June 1865, the last Confederate general to lay down his arms. Fort Towson was abandoned after the Civil War.
Located on US-70 at east edge of Fort Towson
Fort Towson Landing
The Fort Towson Landing was south of here on the banks of the Red River. Also known as the Public Landing, it served as a receiving point for soldiers and supplies delivered by keelboats and steamboats from 1824 to 1854. Traders at the Choctaw settlement of Doaksville and local planters received goods and transported cotton to New Orleans. The cotton went to textile mills in Great Britain and the eastern United States helping to fuel the Industrial Revolution. Commercial navigation on the Upper Red River continued until the early 1900s when railroads surpassed it an as economical mode of transportation.
Located on US-70 near Swink
The first church and school were built here in 1850. During the Civil War, Choctaw troops drilled on the campus for service in the Confederacy. However, after the war, the school returned to its primary mission of educating Indian youth. Later, the mission school was called the Goodland Indian Orphanage, operated by the Southern Presbyterian Church. As the Goodland Presbyterian Children's Home since 1960, it is one of the oldest schools in continuous operation in Oklahoma.
Located on OK-2A, one mile south of Hugo
Goodwater Choctaw Mission
In 1837, Reverend Ebenezer Hotchkins established the mission that became a Choctaw seminary for girls in 1842. The school closed at the beginning of the Civil War. Only the graves of the missionaries who served there mark the site.
Located on US-70, one mile west of Kiamichi River bridge
Pine Ridge Mission
The Presbyterian minister Reverend Cyrus Kingsbury established the Pine Ridge Mission in 1836. The Choctaw Council established a school for girls, Chuahla Female Seminary, at the mission in 1842, which Kingsbury supervised. The school was closed during the Civil War.
Located on east side of Red Road 1/2 mile north of Doaksville/Fort Towson Cemetery
Rose Hill, constructed before the Civil War, was the plantation home of Colonel Robert M. Jones, the wealthiest citizen of the Choctaw Nation. At one time, he owned 500 slaves to farm the land along the Red River. His mansion was decorated with crystal chandeliers imported from Europe. Rose Hill burned to the ground on Christmas night 1912. Only a row of massive cedar trees mark the site of the home today. Nearby, Jones is buried with his wife and children in a family cemetery.
Located on US-70, two miles east of Hugo
A noted school for boys, Spencer Academy was established by the Choctaw Nation in 1841 and named for Secretary of War John C. Spencer. Students who became Choctaw leaders included Allen Wright, Jackson McCurtain, and Jefferson Gardner. Two elderly African American slaves, Uncle Wallace and his wife Aunt Minerva, hired out by their Choctaw owner to work for missionaries at the academy, first sang "Swing Low Sweet Chariot," "Roll, Jordan, Roll," and other spirituals composed nearby.
Located on US-70 in Sawyer
Stand Watie Surrender
Located at Doaksville
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