OHS Historical Marker Program
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Battle of Chustenahlah
Location: on OK-20, three miles west of Skiatook Sportsman Club (DAR)
This was the site of the final engagement between pro-Union American Indians and African Americans, led by Opothleyahola, and the Indian and white Confederate forces commanded by Colonel James McIntosh. Many of the Union Indians froze in the bitter cold during the fighting the day after Christmas of 1861.
Location: in Osage Hills State Park
Men of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built structures and roads in the park in the 1930s.
Location: at 305 North Price in Hominy
Frederick Drummond immigrated to the United States from Scotland in the 1880s. After moving to the Osage Reservation, he established the Hominy Trading Company in 1904 and expanded his operations into the cattle business and buying and leasing Indian lands, eventually building one of the state's largest ranches. Drummond and his wife, Addie, constructed this substantial Victorian home in 1905. Most of the original fine furnishings, as well as personal family records, photographs, and other items, are still in the house.
Location: north side of SH11, 1/2 mile east of the Bird Creek Bridge east of Barnsdall
After the Civil War, Bigheart became chief of the Osage. He operated a trading post at Big Heart, now Barnsdall, and led his people to retain all mineral rights to their lands which brought great wealth to the Osage people.
Million Dollar Elm
Location: on the Osage Agency grounds in Pawhuska
The discovery of "black gold" in Oklahoma precipitated one of the greatest rushes in the history of the West. One of the most famous oil discoveries took place on the Osage Reservation in the northeastern portion of Oklahoma. The mineral rights to the lands were sold to the highest bidder at auctions held under a large elm tree in Pawhuska. Because of the tremendous wealth that traded hands beneath its limbs, the tree became known as the "Million Dollar Elm".
Location: at front entrance to First National Bank, 100 West Main, Pawhuska (DAR)
The first Osage Indian Agency, a hand-cut stone building, was erected on this site by the Department of the Interior in 1873 to handle relations between the Osage and the federal government.
Location: on Grandview Avenue in Pawhuska
The Osage agency was established in 1872 to oversee the federal government's relationship with the Osage. Congress allowed the Osage to retain ownership of minerals in their reservation lands. When oil was discovered in the area, the allotted Osage became the richest Indian tribe in American history. On the grounds is an elm tree under which many early-day oil deals were made. The tree is called the "million-dollar elm.
Osage Chief Fred Lookout
Location: east of Pawhuska on Lookout Mountain
Fred Lookout was the last hereditary chief of the Osage. After being educated in the East, he returned to the Osage Nation in 1884. He served as the leader of his people longer than anyone. He died in 1949 at the age of ninety-eight. His wife, Julia, was a descendant of Chief Pawhuska.
Osage County Museum
Location: at 700 Lynn Avenue, Pawhuska
The vivid history of the Osage Nation and the surrounding region is recorded in this museum. It preserves intact the heritage of the only Indian reservation to be included within the boundaries of Oklahoma.
Location: on US-60 between Pawhuska and Bartlesville
First settled by the Osage Indians in 1796, the area is now part of the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, a protected remnant of the original North American prairie, a 500-mile wide stretch of land in the central part of the United States that extended from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. The tallgrass prairie exists today only in those areas which are not tillable or have soils not conducive to farming. Rich grasses in the prairie have sustained cattle-grazing operations since the 1880s.
Osage Hills State Park
Location: on US-60 northeast of Pawhuska
The Osage Hills State Park, built by Civilian Conservation Corps Company 895 from 1936 to 1939, is centrally located in the lush, rolling hills and a densely wooded canyon between Pawhuska and Bartlesville.
Patriarch Petrochemical Plant of the Southwest
Location: in Barnsdall
Location: on OK-11 and OK-20 in Skiatook
W. C. Rogers, later a chief of the Cherokee Nation, established a trading post near here in 1872. A post office was opened in Rogers' store on March 12, 1880. The name comes from Skiatooka, a prominent Osage who traded in Rogers' store.
St. John's School
Location: at intersection of OK-20 and Blackburn Road, eleven miles west of Hominy
The St. John's School for Osage boys was founded by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions in 1888 on the banks of Hominy Creek. A four-story stone building was erected in 1893 to replace the original log school. The school closed in 1913 but the buildings were maintained until the 1950s when they were torn down.
St. Louis School
Location: just off US-60 south and west of Clear Creek Bridge in Pawhuska
This Osage girls school was founded in 1887 by Mother Mary Katharine Drexel, a Philadelphia heiress who entered a convent as a young woman and used her fortune to support educational institutions across the southern United States, and the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. The school's original frame building burned in 1889 and was replaced by a four-story stone building. In 1942, the school became St. Louis Academy. Later, the buildings were razed and replaced with a low-income housing project. In 2000, Mother Katharine was named a saint by Pope John Paul II.
Location: on OK-99 near Wynona
Near here in 1903, lawman Wiley G. Haines and a small posse killed Sam and Will Martin who were wanted for murder, robbery, and other crimes in five states. A third member of the Martin Gang, Clarence Simmons, escaped.
Location: on OK-99, eight miles south of Pawhuska
Post office was established in 1903 in Wynona, a Sioux word meaning "first-born daughter."
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