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Grade 3: Social Studies Academic Standards

3.1.2 Explain that tribal governments in Oklahoma have a right to self-government known as sovereignty.

Oklahoma History Center Education Resources

Traveling Trunk
American Indian Tribes of Oklahoma in the Modern Era

Teacher Resources
Tribal Sovereignty Overview


The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

James L. Huston, "Civil War Era"
Rennard Strickland, "Cherokee (tribe)"
Mary Jane Warde, "Grayson, George Washington"
Josh Clough, "American Indian Movement"
Kaye Tatro, "Curtis Act (1898)"
Alan C. Downs, "Camp Napoleon Council"
Martha Hartzog, "Fort Smith Council"
William D. Pennington, "Reconstruction Treaties"
Kent Carter, "Dawes Commission"
Clara Sue Kidwell, "Allotment"
Mary Jane Warde, "Indian Response to the Boomer Movement"
Kaye Tatro, "Burke Act (1906)"
Brian F. Rader, "Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act"
Jethro Gaede, "Termination and Relocation Programs"

Research Center Resources

Arrell Morgan Gibson, Between Two Worlds: The Survival of Twentieth Century Indians (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1986) Jimmy M. Skaggs, Ranch and Range in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1983)
Arrell Morgan Gibson, America's Exiles: Indian Colonization in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1976)
Jordan, H. Glenn and Thomas M. Holm,  Indian Leaders: Oklahoma's First Statesmen (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1979)
Donovan L. Hofsommer, Railroads in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977)
Robert E. Smith, Oklahoma's Forgotten Indians (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
Donald E. Green and Thomas V. Tonnesen, ed. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy (Milwaukee, WI: University of Wisconsin System, Institute on Race and Ethnicity, 1991)
Bob L. Blackburn Duane King, Neil Morton, Cherokee Nation: A History of Survival, Self Determination, and Identity = Tsalagihi ayeli nitsulistanvsv unigadvlesv, unvsa tsunugododi, ale unvsihaquu gesvi (Tahlequah: Cherokee Nation, 2018)
Daniel M. Cobb, Native Activism in Cold War America: The Struggle for Sovereignty (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2008)
Joseph Connole, The Civil War and the Subversion of American Indian Sovereignty (North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2017)
Vine Deloria, The Nations Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sovereignty (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984)
Oren Lyons, et al., Exiled in the Land of the Free: Democracy, Indian Nations, and the U.S. Constitution (Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishers, 1992)
Loretta Fowler, Tribal Sovereignty and the Historical Imagination: Cheyenne-Arapaho Politics (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002)
Sidney L. Harring, Crow Dog's Case: American Indian Sovereignty, Tribal Law, and United States Law in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1994)
W. Dale Mason, Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics (Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 2000)
William Gerald McLoughlin, After the Trail of Tears: the Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839–1880 (Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1993)
H. Craig Miner, The Corporation and the Indian: Tribal Sovereignty and Industrial Civilization in Indian Territory, 1865–1907 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989)
National Congress of American Indians, "Spirit, Sovereignty, Survival,National Congress of American Indians, report of the 38th Annual Convention, October 11–16, 1981, Anchorage, Alaska (Washington, DC: National Congress of American Indians, 1981)
John R. Wunder, Native American Sovereignty (New York : Garland Publishing, 1999)
Jill Norgren, The Cherokee Cases: Two Landmark Federal Decisions in the Fight for Sovereignty (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004)
Sovereignty Symposium 2002: Language and the Law (War of Words), presented by the Oklahoma Supreme Court and others (Oklahoma City: Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 2002)
David E. Wilkins and K. Tsianina Lomawaima. Uneven Ground: American Indian Sovereignty and Federal Law (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press)
Fay A. Yarbrough, Race and the Cherokee Nation: Sovereignty in the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013)

Online Primary Sources

"Tribal Leaders Directory," Bureau of Indian Affairs 
"Frequently Asked Questions," Bureau of Indian Affairs 
Johnson and Graham's Lessee v. McIntosh, DocsTeach 
"Judgment in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia," DocsTeach 
"Notice of the Supreme Court's Opinion in Worcester v. Georgia," DocsTeach 

Additional Resources

"Tribal Sovereignty," Pauma Band of Luiseño Indians 
"Tribal Governance," National Congress of American Indians 
"An Issue of Sovereignty," National Conference of State Legislatures

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