Frontiersman Amos Chapman was born in Michigan of mixed White and Indian parentage. He served as civilian scout and interpreter for the US Army. At the outbreak of the Red River War in July 1874, Chapman volunteered to scout and dispatch for General Nelson Miles along the Washita River in Texas.
On 12 September 1874, while there, he another scout, and four soldiers of the 6th US Cavalry, were attacked by 125 Indians. Throughout the day they were charged from all directions, but continued a valiant resistance while protecting their wounded until they were recovered by a relief force. Chapman was injured in the siege resulting in the loss of his left leg.
For gallantry in action he, his fellow scout, along with the four 6th Cavalry Troopers, was awarded the Medal of Honor 4 November 1874. After his retirement from government service Chapman and his wife settled on a ranch in Seiling, Oklahoma, living there until his death.