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The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture


An illustrated monthly, Twin Territories: The Indian Magazine was first published in December 1898 by the Sams Publishing Company, Muskogee, Indian Territory (I.T.). In 1900 the owner, Walter Sams, hired his sister-in-law, Ora Eddleman Reed, to work as the editor and feature writer. The magazine offered its national readership a broad range of features, including literary pieces and current issues regarding Oklahoma and Indian territories. It promoted the literary works of Creek poet Alexander Posey, Cherokee Joshua Ross, and Creek Chief Pleasant Porter. Local club and school news, in addition to a children's page and farmers' interest column, kept citizens abreast of current events. Articles featured American Indian history, culture, and folklore and included biographical sketches of prominent Indian leaders. Essays and photographs of territorial schools, homes, and towns helped dispel the myth of an uncivilized territory.

Several financial setbacks caused changes in the magazine's ownership. In 1900 Lura A. Rowland bought a half interest in the paper and moved it to Fort Gibson, I.T. Within two years the magazine again had financial difficulties. Ora Eddleman Reed moved it back to Muskogee in April 1902 and later sold the publication to E. C. Dighton. The final issue appeared in May 1904.

Linda D. Wilson


Carolyn Thomas Foreman, Oklahoma Imprints, 1835–1907: A History of Printing in Oklahoma Before Statehood (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

Daryl Morrison, "Twin Territories: The Indian Magazine and Its Editor, Ora Eddleman Reed," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 60 (Summer 1982).

Esther Witcher, "Territorial Magazines," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 29 (Winter 1951–52).


The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Linda D. Wilson, “Twin Territories: The Indian Magazine,” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry?entry=TW002.

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