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Pawnee Bill Ranch

1901 Season


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Anna: Thank you for downloading the Pawnee Bill Ranch podcast, brought to you by the staff of the Pawnee Bill Ranch.

Erin: Welcome to the Pawnee Bill Ranch podcast. I'm Erin Brown, Pawnee Bill Ranch curator.

Anna: And I'm Anna Davis, Pawnee Bill Ranch Historical Interpreter. Well, Erin, one of the reasons why we enjoy winter around here is because it gives us time to do all sorts of research about Pawnee Bill history and there are two words that get us very excited: route books.

Erin: We love route books. Not only are they a glimpse into what life was like on the road during a Wild West Show season, they are so much fun to read. They're like a good book that you just can't put down and some of the things that are recorded put soap operas to shame. I mean, talk about drama. We thought it would be a fun podcast topic to focus on one season to give our listeners an idea of what life on the road was like with the show. It was really hard to pick just one season to talk about, but we think that the 1901 season has a good variety of events. There were marriages, a few deaths, accidents and injuries, and just some really unusual happenings. And all of it took place in the middle of one of the worst heat waves America had ever seen. Our plan for this podcast is to run through some excerpts, so you will hear references to particular show characters, cast members, and various locations around the United States.

Anna: Now the 1901 route book was written by H.G. Wilson and L.F. Nocodemus. H.G. Wilson was the manager of the Wild West Show and also, coincidentally, he was the husband of the show's mind reader. Nicodemus was the publisher of the programs, so they were both multitaskers! This is what they had to say in the preface of the 1901 route book… "Route books have come to be looked upon as an absolute necessity by the followers of the white tents. They afford a ready reference to events, furnish valuable data, and are frequently referred to in after years for interesting information. Every year witnesses an improvement in these little volumes. They grow more pretentious yearly, in order to keep pace with the great shows whose events they chronicle."

Erin: And we are forever grateful for those authors for taking the time to record the happenings along the way. I mean, I've probably referenced route books thousands of times by now. They are an invaluable resource for us here.

Anna: And they are definitely the guide for Wild West Shows.

Erin: Yeah. Now the 1901 season of Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show started in Litchfield, Illinois. The show cast had started gathering in the town well before the May 4th opening day and all of the different nationalities in their native costumes gave the town a very exotic and international feel and their arrival generated an air of excitement. On the Wednesday before the first show, 17 cast members were initiated into Elkdom by the Litchfield Lodge of Elks. There was just this real party atmosphere in the city. The Mexican band gave a concert on the public square, the mayor and city council welcomed everyone heartily, and the route book says that "the businessmen were anxious to have us return here next fall."

Anna: Opening day had been threatened by a thunderstorm the night before, but it was sunny and beautiful and it was really a great day for a show and the crowds came out in droves. The performance was two hours long and it all went off without a hitch. The writers had this to say about the occasion "Pawnee Bill deserves the greatest credit. He certainly organized one of the most novel street pageants ever seen. So passed the first day of what we all hope will be the most prosperous season Pawnee Bill has ever seen." So, it proved to be a perfect way to start the 1901 season.

Erin: The show traveled by rail during the night and for the next week they made stops throughout Illinois. They experienced rainy weather, which put a damper, literally, on attendance and revenue, but they did have a sell out in Lincoln, which helped bolster their financial situation. All the rain and mud made it really difficult for crew members to load and unload wagons, and several of them broke, so repairs had to be made all along the way. We know that weather was the greatest enemy and conversely, could be the greatest friend of the tent show business.

Anna: We're going to take a brief pause in our route book timeline to give you some background information on the cast and crew itself. This might be old information for some of you, but the Wild West Show was kind of like its own traveling city. There were cooks, barbers, musicians, advance men, lithographers, car managers, car porters, trainmen, ticket sellers, ticket takers, concession stand workers, canvasmen. And the canvasmen they had the job of putting up the tents and taking them down. The side show performers were there, livestock managers and crew, a band, a light department, an ammunition department, blacksmiths, a harness maker, grooms for the horses, and on and on and on. That's just a small snippet of what they took with them. And that doesn't even include the list of the regular show performers. So moving the show from city to city was a massive undertaking and it took a great deal of organization and commitment on everyone's part.

Erin: Back to our timeline – on May 12 and 13, 1901 the show appeared in Kanakee, Ill. The weather had turned bitterly cold during their travel, but they reported good crowd attendance despite the wind and weather. The route book tells us for a fun outing, the cast took a tour of the city asylum…

Anna: Took a tour of an asylum…

Erin: Apparently the show grounds in Kankakee were on the banks of a river and across from that was a large asylum. Now the route book does not mention of what kind of asylum it was though. However, we were curious, Anna.

Anna: Most definitely.

Erin: And looked it up and this asylum was a hospital for the mentally insane. Doesn't that sound like fun?

Anna: Taking a tour of a mental institution. Ugh…

Erin: The asylum was huge and housed in several gorgeous buildings. And this really speaks to the time that, for fun, people could tour insane asylums. It's really sad. The writers went on to say that it was a very beautiful location and they had good business. And that continued in Streator, La Salle, Joliet, and Blue Island, Illinois. The show made its way to the outskirts of Chicago, first performing in Hammond, Indiana and then in Oak Park, Illinois. They had phenomenal business…until the cast started leaving to go party in Chicago. Without a cast, there could be no show, and we kind of see hints of this adventurous, rebellious streak amount the crew members throughout the route books – these guys wanted to have a good time so they would sneak away to the big city, but they always came back – sometimes to ramifications, but I guess the adventure was worth it to them.

Anna: You have to imagine that for a person who probably had never been to a big city before some of these performers were really excited to go see these sights they had always heard about. So they would run off, go see the sights, and come back for a show. Evanston, Illinois was their next stop, followed by Elgin, Illinois on May 22. Now it was not uncommon for new performers to join the show somewhere along a season's route, or even for performers to jump off mid-season – only to come back in later.  In De Kalb, Illinois the side show picked up a new performer named Michael Belfry, who was "the clay molder". I can only assume that he probably did sculptures in the side show tent. And in Belvidere, Illinois they picked up the sword walker, Miss Ruth Parkinson. Also in Belvidere it was noted that Michael Belfrey, the clay molder, made a high dive during the show. We don't know if this was on horseback or just a regular high dive, but it was extremely impressive to them, just the same.

Erin: He was pulling double duty that day. Rockford, Illinois, Janesville and Kenosha Wisconsin saw large crowds with no incident. In Waukegan, Wisconsin on May 30th, the Elks club showed up at the train depot at 4am to serenade the show cast as they arrived. I'm not sure if that was a welcome serenade or an act of good will or what that was all about. In Racine, Wisconsin, May Lillie bought $500 in Indian blankets from a factory and gave them to the American Indians in the show. They stayed up all night comparing them with one another and trading them. In Milwaukee the show started to see the first accidents of the season. It was bound to happen. The crowds hadn't been great and as it was put "Like most resorts, they came to see, but not to spend."  During the show the chariots driven by Billy Taylor overturned but he was uninjured. Mexican Joe also had a rough time with a hard ride on a bucking bronco, but too also escaped injury that time.

Anna: They traveled around Wisconsin and it was pretty much business as usual until they rolled into Sheboygan on June 5th where they encountered a real disaster. While the train was pulling from the station in the middle of the night one of the flat cars jumped the track. The car behind it derailed and the front portion of the train broke loose and started to roll out of control. Each train had a group of men nicknamed the Razorbacks who would tend to the cars. One of the Razorbacks ran the entire length of the train, swung himself underneath the sleeper cars and cut off the air supply which stopped the entire train.

Erin: That's like a super hero.

Anna: It is like a super hero. It had rolled nearly 800 feet before it was stopped. The only injury was to the conductor who was jumping from the candy wagon to the flat car to help when he hurt his foot severely. A few cowboys were thrown from their bunks due to the sudden stop, wagons damaged, and the two flat cars wrecked, but they were lucky that there was no further damage.

Erin: The bad lucked continued in Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin on June 6th. The show was late because of the train derailment, but they were still able to kind of hurry up and do both shows. This poor man named Dutch Miller was seriously injured during the artillery drill. During the drill the cannon overturned, trapping him beneath the heavy wheels. His hip dislocated and he was bruised enough to require a trip to the hospital, though it was recorded that he would be rejoining the show in hopefully 7-10 days.

Anna: 7 to 10 days after your hip is dislocated.

Erin: Can't keep a good man down.

Anna: In Michigan and Wisconsin they complained a lot that the weather. It was cold and it was rainy. I guess it was so cold that they had to wear their heavy coats because it felt like winter.

Erin: In June.

Anna: And tents were constantly being blown down. I guess being around the Great Lakes really wreaked havoc on them. By the time they left Green Bay on June 12, they had hoped to have seen the last of the blustery weather for the season.

Erin: They hadn't seen the last of crazy accidents though. On June 15 in Merrill, Wisconsin, Alexi Georgian, the head of the Cossacks, was hanging on the side of his horse, running full speed through the arena, when he hit a fire hydrant. Yes, he hit a fire hydrant. It was in the middle of the arena.

Anna: Now, I understand that you don't have control where your show grounds are going to be but you would think they wouldn't put the arena around a fire hydrant.

Erin: Yeah, so many questions about this incident. You would think he would have had a run through too, but accidents are called accidents for a reason. They had known the hydrant was there and have even placed a light on it to warn the riders, but when you're hanging off a horse and you're like backwards, things happen. He fractured his collarbone and three ribs. On a lighter note, Dutch Miller, the artillery man who had been crushed by a cannon in Fond Du Lac rejoined the show

Anna: If you're keeping track, it's about nine days later that he showed back up. The show exhibited in a baseball park on June 19.  Again, they really had no control over where they were going to perform. So sometimes they performed in baseball parks, sometimes they performed in the center of town. A man named Oliver Provost was thrown off a bucking bronco and severely injured. It was said that the throw would have killed a normal man, but he was made of strong Sioux stock. He suffered partial paralysis and the doctor severed his artery, taking a pint of blood. And supposedly that cured him a few hours later because he was able to talk again. But he was never taken to a hospital. Instead, they placed him back in the sleeping cars and expected him to make a full recovery. And you don't hear anything else about Oliver Provost again.

Erin: We're hoping for the best.

Anna: Hope you got well, man. The show was next expected to go to Chippewa Falls, but that show was cancelled as that town had been quarantined for small pox.

Erin: Very clearly, exposing the cast and crew to small pox would have been a very bad idea, so they moved on to Menomonie, Wisconsin where they reported the weather to be so hot on June 22. The parade was late, but the business was big. Nicodemus and Wilson wrote "This is one of the prettiest towns we have showed this season. The river from the Main is elegant. Nick is out there with the camera." It was also noted that the fishermen with the show battled mosquitoes until the trains were loaded without even getting a single bite. In Red Wing Minnesota, the cast got their first taste of the Mississippi River. The trains stopped on the banks of the river and the cast spent their time swimming and rowing and kind of just relaxing and having a good time. Pawnee Bill and a party of his family and friends chartered a steam boat to spend a few hours on the water. All enjoyed themselves…except the authors, who say Nick didn't like the river water. If you ask me, Nick sounds like a real diva! He's the diva of the Wild West Show.

Anna: You take what you get. Stillwater, Minnesota was next on their schedule. The area around Red Wing and Stillwater was very hilly and they had a lot of trouble with the wagons up and down the hills on this terrain. Heck Quinn, who was the leader of the cowboys, took twice as long getting the parade up and down the hills because he wanted everyone to stay safe. Jack Lear, a cowboy, got his first fall from an old mule. And Pawnee Bill and a group of cast members visited…wait for this…the Stillwater penitentiary.

Erin: Yay! Let's go visit the jail!

Anna: We went to the insane asylum and now we're at the Stillwater penitentiary. Pawnee Bill was presented with a cane that had seen service in the pen for twenty years. I don't know what kind of service.  And he took time to talk to the Younger Brothers who just so happened to be confined there.  The route book authors suggested that the Youngers brothers were expecting early release. The show was off to St. Paul and Minneapolis next.

Erin: Minneapolis was perhaps one of the worst stops of the show season. They described the weather on the first day, June 28, as a hurricane. High winds and rain wrecked tents and poles. Cowboys lost their hats in the high winds, a performer's glasses were broken by a falling pole, but luckily the only spectator injured was a little boy who was bruised when a tent pole fell on him. Their business was excellent though. However, poor Mexican Joe was thrown twice during the Pony Express race. And that Miss Lizzie Smart's…she's always meeting with bad news. Her horse collided with another cowboy and she was thrown to the ground. Oh, and one bit of excitement was that a few cowboys were almost arrested for counterfeit money! George Aherne found himself $5 short while shopping in the big city and he offered a barkeeper $5 of money issued by the Arkansas Valley National Bank, the institution that Pawnee Bill owned. He had been keeping it as a souvenir since it had Pawnee Bill's signature on it, but the barkeeper didn't think it was real. So, he actually had George arrested, but once the police looked into the matter, they decided that the check was indeed legitimate and set him free. It got Pawnee Bill's bank free publicity though because it was the talk of the city the next day.

Anna: In Ashland Wisconsin on June 30th, the Wild West Show encountered a cyclone. It blew down the canvas tents at 7 in the morning. The Side Show tent was actually nearly destroyed, but they were able to keep doing for a parade and a large show. Old Bell, a horse ridden by Billie Williams, died of heart disease during the Grand Entrance.

Erin: That would have been a real damper to begin the show.

Anna: One of the Cossacks took a fall during their act but he was not seriously hurt. The July 4th show was in West Superior, Wisconsin. It was actually almost cancelled because when the show staff arrived they found that their performance area was taken up by a small lake. O.J. Krause, the Wild West Show business manager, found a location in the center of town to perform and they were actually nearly over run with droves of people who came to see the show. The same thing happened the next day in Brainerd Minnesota, leading the side show annex to declare that they could close early for the season because they had made all the money that they needed.

Erin: Woo hoo! Sauk Center, Minnesota on July 6th is the first mention in the route book we see of the intense heat that they would struggle with through the rest of July and into August. Mr. C. Metius, the show treasurer, got news that his mother had suffered heat stroke in back Philadelphia. So, this really worried the whole cast because a lot of them were based out of Philadelphia and most of their family was still there. So, it turns out, Anna, that the summer of 1901 was the 3rd worst heat wave ever in America. 9500 people would die that summer all over the United States because of the extreme heat.

Anna: Now, we perform out Wild West Show today in the month of June. And it can get really hot in June. I can only imagine how it was to be a cast member on the road at this time, because today we have air conditioners we can retreat into, but back then they didn't have anything.

Erin: Right.

Anna: So it was probably just miserable for these people performing in this show.

Erin: They traveled on to Little Falls, Minnesota. The one thing they saw fit to saw fit to record was that the fishermen caught 125 catfish and a secret wedding happened! Now that was in the same sentence.

Anna: Secret wedding!

Erin: Secret wedding! We love it! I guess the heat had a real effect on the love lives of the crew this year, because it's starting in July that we start hearing about weddings and engagements and love affairs! It says that Mr. Harry Skipper and Miss Mamie Lawrence tied the knot in front of the entire company, but when the nuptials were finished, it was revealed that Millie Egypt and George Malone had secretly already gotten married in Minneapolis.

Anna: St. Cloud Minnesota saw a respite from the heat with a little rain shower. The showers were bad for business but everyone was really thankful because it gave them not only a needed break from the heat but also gave everybody water. So that was a big thing that they talked about that season was that everyone got water when it rained. In Hutchinson Minnesota Mexican Joe's bronc took a wild ride and took him all the way through the teepees. That night, a cook named Texas fell asleep on the steps of the sleeper train and he actually fell off the train while it was in motion. So, I don't know how he slept through the train getting going.

Erin: I don't know why he would think it would be a good idea to sleep on the steps. Weird.

Anna:  He had to walk 30 miles to catch up with the show that afternoon but he actually didn't get injured during his fall. To add to the weird calamities, Rush, a horse tent man, went swimming and nearly drowned. He had to be rescued by some local children.

Erin: That's my favorite part of this whole season. He had to be rescued by babies.

Anna: And swore he would bath in a bucket from then on. One of the Cossacks fell in the arena, but there were no broken bones. On July 13, the show visited Northfield Minnesota where the Younger Brothers had been captured. Remember, we met the Younger brothers in Stillwater, Minnesota when they were in the penitentiary and now we're in Northfield where they have been captured.  The cast took a chance to visit the bank where their big shootout had happened, but they found it had been turned into a hardware store. The fishermen that night caught 150 catfish and the Indians caught a turtle, which was soon turned into turtle soup.

Erin:  So, I guess we know what the cast and crew of the Wild West show were eating in 1901. A lot of fish! By July 25 in Plattsville, Wisconsin the entire cast and show stock was struggling with the intense heat. In Lancaster, riders started to fall during the races because of the heat. But happier news came on July 27, which is also my anniversary, when Mr. Swain left the show to marry Miss Ryan of Chicago. There's something about the heat and those love affairs!

Anna: In Freeport Illinois, the show finally got another break from the heat with a little rain storm. Mr. Swain and his new wife entertained the cast with a banquet. The band serenaded the new couple while the Native Americans performed what they called an Orange Dance in their honor. They were also given a silver service that had been paid for by the cast. During the performances, a few members of the Wild West Show thought it would be a good idea to try and steal some of Pawnee Bill's wardrobe from his personal car. The route book says "They will all have time to repent their rashness." 

Erin: Dun-dun-dun.

Anna: So, I can only assume they probably got arrested for doing this.

Erin: Yeah.

Anna: Then in Mendota Illinois on July 30, Texas, that man who had fallen off the train earlier, fell from the train once more after he fell asleep on the outside steps again. Only this time, it didn't turn out so good for him because he was killed when he fell underneath the train's wheels.

Erin: Ugh…

Anna: His remains were buried in Freeport, Illinois under his real name which was John Youndie. In Sandwich, Illinois the next day the international cast was extremely surprised to learn that the city that they were in had a huge international population. The Cossacks, Turks, and European side show members all met people from their own countries living in the city.

Erin: So the heat continued through early August and on August 4th in Monmouth Illinois, James Harto and Catherine Wren were secretly married by a man named Father Owens. Now they were all sly and they tried to deny that the marriage had occurred, but the entire cast reportedly told them…"We shall see later."

Anna: We're going to wait for that baby bump to appear!

Erin: Mt. Pleasant, Iowa reported that everyone was sick with heat. In Ft. Madison, Iowa, Letty Adelle, a fabulous cowgirl, took a hard fall from her horse during the lady's race. She suffered a black eye, but thankfully no broken bones. In Toluca, Iowa, Harry Winners, master of transportation, shot himself through the forefinger while teaching...TEACHING another man how to handle a revolver.

Anna: I wonder if he was teaching him how to do quick draw tricks, you know?

Erin: He was not a good teacher. He was like a teacher of how not to handle a gun. At the same time, Frank Brown, ammunition tent manager, was shot in the leg by a bunch of exploding shells. I mean, it's like these people knew nothing about gun safety!

Anna: Now, the heat wave continued through Pontiac, Paxton, Tuscola, Taylorville and Virginia Illinois. In Tuscola, on August 11, Charles Humberstone and May Herbert were married. The writers of the route book actually had this quote to say about it, "This show wins the penant this season for marriages, with a few more to hear from." Also, another piece of good news was that Mr. Smith's dog, Spartans, delivered four puppies in Petersburg, Illinois. Spartans was the candy tent mascot that season. The show continued to battle the heat through Clinton Illinois until they had their worst performance in Dubuque, Iowa on August 18. The heat was unbearable and riders just kept falling from their saddles. Not sure if it was from heat related things or distraction.

Erin: I'm sure it was heat.

Anna: But they just kept falling from their saddles.

Erin: They were probably passing out.

Anna: Yeah. Dutch Miller, the man who was injured earlier in the season when the cannon fell on him, was injured when the cannon exploded prematurely during his act. He was taken to the hospital and it was feared he would lose sight in his eye. The cast members raised nearly $300 to hire a special doctor to do the eye surgery and they helped to take care of him and they even pledged more if the operations exceeded that amount. It's a miracle that poor Dutch continued to work for this show because it was like do or die every day for him.

Erin:   No one said Wild West Shows were dangerous! On the evening of August 24 one of the most serious and tragic incidences occurred in Correctionville, Iowa when a group of drunk and armed men tried to board the single women's train and demanded admittance. Now you can just imagine being young and single and being with your friends.

Anna: Probably in your bunch asleep.

Erin: Yeah and a bunch of drunk men with guns are trying to get in at you. So, these guys were scared off by a few of the Wild West Show cast members on the train and they ran off into the night. Joe Sullivan, who was a butcher for the show, tried to head them off. I guess he was going to just try and teach them a lesson. And they shot him in the head and he was killed by a man named Harley Cave. Cave barricaded himself in a hotel in town called the Pitty and refused to leave. So, all the show cast members surrounded the hotel and were going to kind of take matters into their own hands. They threatened to burn it down until Cave came out. Pawnee Bill and Mr. O.J. Krause arrived and they kind of got their men back under control and the Sheriff was successful in getting Cave to surrender.

Anna: Yeah, and there's no other mention of Cave again so we're not really sure what happened to him.

Erin: He probably met with justice.

Anna: He probably did. The show calmed down a little bit as they traveled to Missouri Valley and Dennison, Iowa. On August 30, Mr. Niccodemus rejoined the show in Tipton, Iowa with a delivery of mini ponies to help strengthen the miniature Wild West Show. 

Erin: I bet that brought moral up too because who doesn't love a mini pony.

Anna: The heat wave finally ended in Vinton, Iowa and in Grundy Center Iowa on September 1, May Lillie shot 24 out of 24 targets during her performance. Also during that same performance, a cowboy and his bucking broke loose and got into the seats of the audience, causing chaos amongst everybody. Luckily, no one was injured.

Erin: The show continued to tour through Iowa and Nebraska though September. One sentence caught my eye in September and it was, "May Lillie springs a new hat today as a warning to the ladies to ditch their straws."' Apparently May set the fashion tone and what she wore was an example of what was acceptable for the other ladies in the cast and crew to wear. So what she was saying was it was fall and stop wearing your straw summer hats! You have to maintain some decorum even if you're on the road. There is also a line that always cracks me up because we don't know exactly what it means but when the show was near Columbus Nebraska, the authors write, "Dr. Swain is initiated into the mystery of the private car. Initiation fee paid." This is the same Swain who was married just a month or so earlier but the way it is written, we don't really know what it means, but it always makes me laugh.

Anna: And there are so many inside jokes in these Wild West Show books.

Erin: Yeah, and we don't get it.

Anna: We have no idea what they're talking about.

Erin: They mystery of the private car. That's like innuendo for any number of things.

Anna: In October – something significant happened that still affects us today. Pawnee Bill purchased the Casey herd of buffalo in Missouri and had them shipped to Pawnee, Oklahoma. This was the beginning of his dream to establish a bison ranch. This entry is also one of the last ones of the season. The show performed for the last time in 1901 in Jackson, Missouri on November 2. So that was a long season.

Erin: It was!

Anna: From May to November.

Erin: That's a lot of crazy weather to endure.

Anna: Exactly. From there they shipped everything to their winter quarters in Chester, Pennsylvania.

Erin: Now, the 1901 route book that we have doesn't include the court records in the back, so we thought it would be fun to read some of the other entries to you from other seasons so we can give you an idea of what kind of crimes were committed and what the punishments for those crimes were. And these are crimes or offences that the cast members committed. So, here's the first one: Nestor the Cossack was charged with eating 20 eggs for breakfast, he was found guilty and sentenced to 10 slaps.

Anna: The manager of the midway was charged with not eating breakfast, he was found guilty and sentenced to 10 slaps.

Erin: So, it's like you can't eat too much and you can't eat too little.

Anna: You're going to eat what you're given and be happy.

Erin: That's right. You're going to get slapped around. The rube, which was like a cowboy comedian, he was charged with fighting and found guilty and sentenced to 5 slaps. So apparently fighting was a lesser offence than not eating breakfast.

Anna: The property man was charged with wearing other people's clothing and being late in putting up his own dressing tent. You had to take care of your tent people.

Erin: And you had to wear your own clothes.

Anna: Now it said he was placed in jail, which I'm assuming he wasn't actually placed in jail. He was probably put in a car or something and was awaiting bond at the time of the writing.

Erin: I don't know. It depended on how serious they take it.

Anna: I guess so.

Erin: Finally, old Willie was charged with not properly saddling his horse and then I guess he was a real hot head because when he was approached he pulled a gun on the police. So, not a good idea Willie. He pled guilty and was given 15 raps.

Anna: I don't even know what the difference between a rap and a slap was and these might have been a little tongue in cheek, but they were really funny anyway. We hope you've enjoyed our podcast and we really hope that you have a deeper understanding of what life was like on the road with Pawnee Bill's Show. It was a lot of fun and a lot of things went on.

Erin: Yeah, it was definitely a rollercoaster. There were highs and lows. Thank you for listening. Until next time, I'm Erin Brown

Anna: And I'm Anna Davis. We hope you tune in next month for our next podcast. We've been working on some new research and I think you'll find it interesting! Thank you for listening and see you next time.

Anna: The Pawnee Bill Ranch is owned and operated by the Oklahoma Historical Society. For more information go to www.pawneebillranch.com or find us on Facebook under Pawnee Bill Ranch and Museum.