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The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture


By the twenty-first century the designation "Five Tribes" had become accepted usage in describing a generic historical grouping of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee (Creek), Choctaw, and Seminole nations of pre-statehood Oklahoma. The term has superseded an older usage, "Five Civilized Tribes," which is now considered to be demeaning. Nevertheless, "Five Civilized Tribes" is still found in the titles of numerous twentieth-century scholarly books and in some official documents. The earlier terminology also prevails in colloquial speech in Oklahoma and elsewhere.


"Historic Context Review: A Planning Tool for the Oklahoma Historical Society," 24 January 2018, Vertical File, Publications Division, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City.

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The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
“Five Tribes,” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry?entry=FI015.

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