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Oklahoma History Academic Standards

OKH.5.1 Examine the policies of the United States and their effects on American Indian identity, culture, economy, tribal government and sovereignty including:

A. passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
B. effects of the federal policy of assimilation including Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s)
C. authority to select tribal leaders as opposed to appointment by the federal government
D. exploitation of American Indian resources, lands, trust accounts, head rights, and guardianship as required by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Oklahoma History Center Education Resources

E-Exhibit
American Indians in Oklahoma

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Donald Fixico, "American Indians"

Research Center Resources

Arrell Morgan Gibson, Between Two Worlds: The Survival of Twentieth Century Indians (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1986)
Rennard A. Strickland, The Indians in Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)

Online Primary Sources

Resources Related to American Indian and Alaska Native Communities at the National Archives, DocsTeach
"Native Americans," Voices of Oklahoma
Francis Paul Prucha, Documents of United States Indian Policy (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000)
"Oklahoma Indian Tribe Education Guides," State Department of Education
Native Knowledge 360ᵒ Lessions and Resources, National Museum of the American Indian
Indian Resources Timeline, The United States Department of Justice




A. passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Thomas W. Cowger, "Pan-Indian Movements"
Kaye Tatro, "Burke Act (1906)"

Online Primary Sources

"Late In Coming," The National Archives
"Act of June 2, 1924, Public Law 68-175, 43 STAT 253, which authorized the Secretary of the Interior to issue certificates of citizenship to Indians,"; 6/2/1924; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11; National Archives

Additional Resources

"1924 Indian Citizenship Act," National Park Service
"On This Day, All Indians Made United States Citizens," National Constitution Center, June 2, 2019
"Indian Citizenship Act, 1924," Chickasaw TV
"American Indian Citizenship," Native American Net Roots, February 28, 2010




B. effects of the federal policy of assimilation including Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s)

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Clyde Ellis, "American Indians and Education"
Clyde Ellis, "American Indians and Christianity"
Josh Clough, "Fort Sill Indian School"
Tsianina Lomawaima, "Chilocco Indian Agricultural School"
Clyde Ellis, "Rainy Mountain Boarding School"
Pamela Koenig, "Riverside Indian School"

Research Center Resources

H. Glenn Jordan and Thomas M. Holm, Indian Leaders: Oklahoma's First Statesmen (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1979)
Robert E. Smith, Oklahoma's Forgotten Indians (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
Melvena K. Thurman, Women in Oklahoma: A Century of Change (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1979)
Edward Everett Dale, The West Wind Blows: The Autobiography of Edward Everett Dale (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1984)

Audio/Visual

Online Primary Sources

Adam Fortunate Eagle and Laurence M. Hauptman, Pipestone My Life in an Indian Boarding School (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014)
Clifford E. Trafzer, Jean A. Keller, and Lorene Sisquoc, Boarding School Blues: Revisiting American Indian Educational Experiences (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006)
The Indian School Journal, National Archives

Additional Resources

Jessie Kratz, "The Power of American Indian Boarding School Records," National Archives, November 14, 2018
Mary Stout, Native American Boarding Schools (Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2013)
William T. Hagan, "Assimilation Policy," Encyclopedia of the Great Plains




C. authority to select tribal leaders as opposed to appointment by the federal government

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Ingrid P. Westmoreland, "Inter-tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes"
Douglas R. Parks, "Pawnee (tribe)"
Clara Sue Kidwell, "Allotment"
Kaye Tatro, "Curtis Act (1898)"

Research Center Resources

H. Glenn Jordan and Thomas M. Holm, Indian Leaders: Oklahoma's First Statesmen (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1979)
Robert E. Smith, Oklahoma's Forgotten Indians (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)
Melvena K. Thurman, Women in Oklahoma: A Century of Change (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1979)
Edward Everett Dale, The West Wind Blows: The Autobiography of Edward Everett Dale (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1984)

Audio/Visual

Online Primary Sources

"The Dawes Act," Ourdocuments.gov
"Dawes Act and Commission," Library of Congress

Additional Resources

Jessie Kratz, "Indian New Deal," National Archives, November 30 2015
Stephen L. Pevar, The Rights of Indians and Tribes (New York, NY [etc.]: Oxford University Press, 2012)
Katherine Ellinghaus, Blood Will Tell: Native Americans and Assimilation Policy (Lincoln: University of Nebraska press and the American Philosophical Society, 2017)
Kent Carter, The Dawes Commission and the Allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914 (Orem, Utah: Ancestry.com, 1999)




D. exploitation of American Indian resources, lands, trust accounts, head rights, and guardianship as required by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Bill Corbett and Rachel Whitaker, "Union Agency"
Jon D. May, "Osage Murders"
Corey Bone, "Osage Oil"
Kaye Tatro, "Burke Act (1906)"

Online Primary Sources

"Bureau of Indian Affairs," National Archives
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Methods and suggestions for inspecting officers of the United States Indian Service (Washington, Govt. Print. Off, 1916)
Indian Lands for Sale Under Government Supervision (Washington, D.C.?: G.P.O.?, 1911)
"Osage People and Their Trust Property," Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1+953
"Minerals Council: Frequently Asked Questions," Osage Nation

Additional Resources

Donald Lee Fixico, Bureau of Indian Affairs (Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood, 2012)
"Bureau of Indian Affairs," Arizona PBS
Katherine Ellinghaus, Blood Will Tell: Native Americans and Assimilation Policy (Lincoln: University of Nebraska press and the American Philosophical Society, 2017)
"Government Settles Indian Trust Fund Suit," Cultural Survival
David Grann, Killers of the Flower Moon: Oil, Money, Murder and the Birth of the FBI (2018)
Louise Red Corn, "$380 Million Expected in Federal Osage Trust Case Settlement," Tulsa World, August 18, 2011
Lance Kelley, "The Guardian Program for Native Americans: A Historiographic Review," ERIC




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