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Oklahoma History Academic Standards

OKH. 6.1 Evaluate the progress of race relations and actions of civil disobedience in the state including:

A. judicial interpretation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment which ultimately resulted in the desegregation of public facilities and public schools and universities
B. landmark Supreme Court cases of Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1948) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma Board of Regents for Higher Education (1950)
C. lunch counter sit-ins organized by Clara Luper and the NAACP
D. leadership of Governor Gary in the peaceful integration of the public common and higher education

Oklahoma History Center Education Resources

E-Exhibit
The African American Civil Rights Movement in Oklahoma

Traveling Trunks
African Americans in Oklahoma
Women of Oklahoma

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Jimmie Lewis Franklin, "African Americans"
James M. Smallwood, "Segregation"
Nudie E. Williams, "Newspapers, African American"
John H. L. Thompson, "Dunjee, Roscoe"
Hannah D. Atkins, "Stewart, James Edward"
James M. Smallwood, "NAACP"
Larry O'Dell, "Colleges, African American"
Robert H. Henry, "Civil Rights Movement"

Research Center Resources

Jimmie Lewis Franklin, The Blacks in Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)

Audio/Visual

Online Primary Sources

"Civil Rights," Voices of Oklahoma

Additional Resources

George Henderson and David W. Levy, Race and the University A Memoir (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014)
"Progress & Potential: A Look at Those Who Spearheaded Oklahoma’s Civil Rights History and Where We Stand on Equality Issues Today," The Oklahoman




A. judicial interpretation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment which ultimately resulted in the desegregation of public facilities and public schools and universities

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Jerry E. Stephens, "Judiciary"

Online Primary Sources

"14th Amendment," Constitution Center
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 US 483 - Supreme Court 1954
Documents Related to Brown V. Board of Education, National Archives

Additional Resources

Richard Kluger, Simple Justice: The History of Brown V. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2011)




B. landmark Supreme Court cases of Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1948) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma Board of Regents for Higher Education (1950)

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Melvin C. Hall, "Fisher, Ada Lois Sipuel"
Hannah D. Atkins, "Hall, Amos T."
Alfred L. Brophy, "McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)"
David W. Levy, "University of Oklahoma"
Kitty Pittman, "Cross, George Lynn"

Research Center Resources

Audio/Visual

Online Primary Sources

"Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher Legal Files." Oklahoma Department of Libraries.
Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher, Danney Goble, and Robert Harlan Henry, A Matter of Black and White: The Autobiography of Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher (2019)

Additional Resources

Brian Hardzinki, "Encore: Before Brown v. Board, Oklahoma’s Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher Helped Desegregate Education," KGOU, June 6, 2016
Cheryl Elizabeth Brown Wattley, A Step Toward Brown V. Board of Education: Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher and Her Fight to End Segregation (2018)
George Lynn Cross, Blacks in White Colleges: Oklahoma's Landmark Cases (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1975)
Mark V. Tushnet, The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950, with a New Epilogue by the Author (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005)
"Hidden Legends: Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher," OU Daily
"Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher Biography," Oklahoma Hall of Fame
"Photo Essay: Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher," OU College of Law
Emma Keith, "Separate and Unequal," OU Daily




C. lunch counter sit-ins organized by Clara Luper and the NAACP

"The Good Fight: Oklahoma City Sit-ins," Crossroads

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

Stefanie Lee Decker, "Luper, Clara Shepard"
Alfred L. Brophy, "Guinn v. United States (1915)"
Alfred L. Brophy, "Lane v. Wilson (1939)"
Larry O'Dell, "Simmons, Jake, Jr."
Larry O'Dell, "Porter, Edward Melvin"

Research Center Resources

Audio/Visual
"Clara Luper Collection," Oklahoma Historical Society Audio Archives
"Desegregation: Trouble in Oklahoma City, 1958," (F2013.134.2.000, OHS)

Online Primary Sources

"Clara Luper Photo Gallery," The Oklahoman

Additional Resources

Calvin Luper oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2011, US Civil Rights History Project
Marilyn Luper Hildreth oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2011, US Civil Rights History Project
Bauman, Anna "Hidden Legends: Clara Luper" OU Daily
"Clara Luper," Oklahoma Hall of Fame
"Clara Luper Sit Ins OK Moments," Oklahoma Council Social Studies
Olugbemisola Rhuday-Perkovich and Jade Johnson, Someday Is Now: Clara Luper and the 1958 Oklahoma City Sit-Ins (Minneapolis: Quayside Publishing Group, 2018)
Clara Luper, Behold the Walls (1979)
Anna Bauman, "Hidden Legends: Clara Luper," OU Daily
"Remembering Clara Luper," The Oklahoman Video Archive
Oklahoma State NAACP




D. leadership of Governor Gary in the peaceful integration of the public common and higher education

The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture

David Norris, "Gary, Raymond Dancel"
Danney Goble, "Government and Politics"
Dianna Everett, "Better Schools Amendment"

Research Center Resources

LeRoy Henry Fischer, Oklahoma's Governors, 1955-1979: Growth and Reform (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1985)

Audio/Visual
"Inauguration of Oklahoma Governor Raymond D. Gary," The WKY KTVY KFOR Archives from OHS

Online Primary Sources

"Problems in Oklahoma Education," Oklahoma Human Rights Commission, 1968

Additional Resources

"Raymond D. Gary," Oklahoma Hall of Fame
"Commending the Life and Career of the Late Governor Raymond Gary," Oklahoma Legislature




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