Latino History in Oklahoma
abolish: Formally put an end to.
amnesty: A pardon for breaking a law.
Anglo: White English-speakers, many of whom migrated to Mexico from the United States in the early nineteenth century.
asylum-seekers: A person who is seeking refuge by staying in another country.
Bay of Pigs: A failed invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, with the support of the United States, in 1961.
bilingual: Having the ability to speak two languages.
birthright citizenship: Automatic citizenship granted when a child is born within United States territory.
Bracero: Agreement between the US and other countries to temporarily allow entry in the United States for work.
catastrophe: A disaster.
Chinese Exclusion Act: A federal law, passed in 1882 and lasting until 1942, that prohibited the immigration of all Chinese laborers into the United States.
conquistadores: The Spanish conquerors of Mexico in the 16th century.
consulate: An office in another country where people can get documents they need from their country of origin.
criminalize: Make something illegal.
deportation: Sending a person back to their country of origin.
discrimination: A thought that a group is better or worse than other groups and acting on that belief.
diversity: Showing great variety.
elaborate: Richly detailed.
emigration: The act of leaving a country to permanently settle elsewhere.
encomienda: The awarding of indigenous laborers to conquerors by the Spanish crown.
exile: Forced absence from one’s country.
expedition: Travel with the purpose of exploring.
fortified: Defensive works built to protect against attack.
inclusive: Actions or policies that include.
indigenous: The original or earliest known inhabitant of a place.
intensive: Very concentrated or thorough.
interior: The center, non-coastal areas of a continent.
lariat: A rope with a loop on one end.
lynching: The killing of a person by a group without a legal trial.
mariachi: A traditional Mexican musical style usually played by a group of trumpeters, guitarists, and violinists.
marimba: A musical instrument similar to a xylophone; considered the national instrument of Guatemala.
Mexican Repatriation: A mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans between 1932 and 1936.
Mexican Revolution: A period of conflict between 1910 and 1924 that dramatically change the government and society of Mexico.
mission: A small settlement of people attempting to accomplish a goal, such as spreading a religion to a new place.
mixed-status: A family that includes members that are a mix of undocumented, Dreamers, legal residents, and citizens.
monks: A group of men that devote themselves to their religion.
naturalization: The process of becoming a citizen.
normalize: Bring to a standard state.
pillboxes: A partially underground concrete fort.
pommel: The upward curving or projecting part of a saddle in front of the rider.
prejudice: Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.
punitive: To punish.
quirt: A short-handled riding whip with a braided leather lash.
quota: A required amount.
railheads: The beginning point of a railroad.
ranchera: A type of Mexican country music typically played with guitars and horns.
ranchero: A person working on a ranch.
ration: A fixed amount that is allowed.
reata: A lasso.
refugee: A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
relief: Assistance, especially in the form of food, clothing, or money, given to those in special need or difficulty.
remuda: A herd of horses used by cowboys or rancheros.
rural: The countryside.
saddle horn: A hornlike prolongation of the pommel of a stock saddle.
sheltered instruction: An approach to teaching English-language learners that include both subject content and language acquisition goals.
sniper: A person who shoots from a hiding place, especially accurately and at long range.
Spanish-American War: Conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898 over the island of Cuba.
spur: A device with a small spike or a spiked wheel that is worn on a rider's heel and used for urging a horse forward.
tallow: A hard fatty substance made from rendered animal fat, used in making candles and soap.
Tejano: A term used for people who were both Mexican and Texan in heritage.
unaccompanied minors: Individuals under the age of 18 that are traveling or attempting to immigrate.
undocumented: Lacking the appropriate authorization to be in the country, including the permission to work.
urbanization: The increasing growth and importance of cities.
vaquero: A cattle driver.