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Latino History in Oklahoma


abolish: Formally put an end to.

amnesty: A pardon for breaking a law.

Anglo: White English-speakers, many of whom migrated to Mexico from the United States in the early nineteenth century.

asylum-seekers: A person who is seeking refuge by staying in another country.

Bay of Pigs: A failed invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, with the support of the United States, in 1961.

bilingual: Having the ability to speak two languages.

birthright citizenship: Automatic citizenship granted when a child is born within United States territory.

Bracero: Agreement between the US and other countries to temporarily allow entry in the United States for work.

catastrophe: A disaster.

Chinese Exclusion Act: A federal law, passed in 1882 and lasting until 1942, that prohibited the immigration of all Chinese laborers into the United States.

conquistadores: The Spanish conquerors of Mexico in the 16th century.

consulate: An office in another country where people can get documents they need from their country of origin.

criminalize: Make something illegal.

deportation: Sending a person back to their country of origin.

discrimination: A thought that a group is better or worse than other groups and acting on that belief.

diversity: Showing great variety.

elaborate: Richly detailed.

emigration: The act of leaving a country to permanently settle elsewhere.

encomienda: The awarding of indigenous laborers to conquerors by the Spanish crown.

exile: Forced absence from one’s country.

expedition: Travel with the purpose of exploring.

fortified: Defensive works built to protect against attack.

inclusive: Actions or policies that include.

indigenous: The original or earliest known inhabitant of a place.

intensive: Very concentrated or thorough.

interior: The center, non-coastal areas of a continent.

lariat: A rope with a loop on one end.

lucrative: Profitable.

lynching: The killing of a person by a group without a legal trial.

mariachi: A traditional Mexican musical style usually played by a group of trumpeters, guitarists, and violinists.

marimba: A musical instrument similar to a xylophone; considered the national instrument of Guatemala.

Mexican Repatriation: A mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans between 1932 and 1936.

Mexican Revolution: A period of conflict between 1910 and 1924 that dramatically change the government and society of Mexico.

mission: A small settlement of people attempting to accomplish a goal, such as spreading a religion to a new place.

mixed-status: A family that includes members that are a mix of undocumented, Dreamers, legal residents, and citizens.

monks: A group of men that devote themselves to their religion.

naturalization: The process of becoming a citizen.

normalize: Bring to a standard state.

patrons: Supporters.

pillboxes: A partially underground concrete fort.

pommel: The upward curving or projecting part of a saddle in front of the rider.

prejudice: Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.

punitive: To punish.

quirt: A short-handled riding whip with a braided leather lash.

quota: A required amount.

railheads: The beginning point of a railroad.

ranchera: A type of Mexican country music typically played with guitars and horns.

ranchero: A person working on a ranch.

ration: A fixed amount that is allowed.

reata: A lasso.

refugee: A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.

relief: Assistance, especially in the form of food, clothing, or money, given to those in special need or difficulty.

remuda: A herd of horses used by cowboys or rancheros.

rural: The countryside.

saddle horn: A hornlike prolongation of the pommel of a stock saddle.

sheltered instruction: An approach to teaching English-language learners that include both subject content and language acquisition goals.

sniper: A person who shoots from a hiding place, especially accurately and at long range.

Spanish-American War: Conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898 over the island of Cuba.

spur: A device with a small spike or a spiked wheel that is worn on a rider's heel and used for urging a horse forward.

tallow: A hard fatty substance made from rendered animal fat, used in making candles and soap.

Tejano: A term used for people who were both Mexican and Texan in heritage.

unaccompanied minors: Individuals under the age of 18 that are traveling or attempting to immigrate.

undocumented: Lacking the appropriate authorization to be in the country, including the permission to work.

urbanization: The increasing growth and importance of cities.

vaquero: A cattle driver.