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Chief's Old House

Choctaw County
Location: on county road, two miles northeast of Swink
Material: Granite
Topics: American Indians, Family/Household, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, Government

According to some this is the oldest house still standing in Oklahoma, having been built in 1832 by the federal government for Choctaw District Chief Thomas LeFlore under its treaty obligations with the Choctaw Nation. Recent scholarship indicates that the home built for LeFlore stood west of Wheelock Mission in McCurtain County. However, this old house is representative of a typical Choctaw planter's home in the mid-nineteenth century.


Choctaw County
Location: one mile north of Fort Towson
Material: Granite
Topics: Indian and Frontier Trade, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, American Indians, Government

This town was the commercial center of the region shortly after it was established by Josiah Doak in 1824. At one time it was the capital of the Choctaw Nation. The name of the post office at nearby Fort Towson was changed to Doaksville on November 11, 1847.

Dorothy Jean Orton

Choctaw County
Location: on grounds of Fort Towson Historic Site
Material: Granite
Topics: Social/Cultural, Industrial Period 1841–1892

Orton, a lifelong Fort Towson resident and postmistress from 1953 to 1968, was a member of the Fort Towson Commission. She was a driving force in the preservation and restoration of the old fort.

Fort Towson

Choctaw County
Location: on US-70 at east edge of Fort Towson
Material: Granite
Topics: Military, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, American Indians, Government

Colonel Matthew Arbuckle ordered the construction of the fort in May 1824 to guard the US boundary with Mexico. After Indian removals to the area in the 1830s, the fort served as a permanent army post until 1854. During the Civil War, the fort was occupied by Confederate forces. Brigadier General Stand Watie surrendered his Confederate troops here in June 1865, the last Confederate general to lay down his arms. Fort Towson was abandoned after the Civil War.

Fort Towson Landing

Choctaw County
Location: on US-70 at east edge of Fort Towson
Topics: Industry/Business, Retail, Indian and Frontier Trade, American Indians, Transportation

The Fort Towson Landing was south of here on the banks of the Red River. Also known as the Public Landing, it served as a receiving point for soldiers and supplies delivered by keelboats and steamboats from 1824 to 1854. Traders at the Choctaw settlement of Doaksville and local planters received goods and transported cotton to New Orleans. The cotton went to textile mills in Great Britain and the eastern United States helping to fuel the Industrial Revolution. Commercial navigation on the Upper Red River continued until the early 1900s when railroads surpassed it an as economical mode of transportation.

Goodland Mission

Choctaw County
Location: on OK-2A, one mile south of Hugo
Material: Aluminum
Topics: Religion/Philosophy, Education, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, Military, Modern Period 1982–present

The first church and school were built here in 1850. During the Civil War, Choctaw troops drilled on the campus for service in the Confederacy. However, after the war, the school returned to its primary mission of educating Indian youth. Later, the mission school was called the Goodland Indian Orphanage, operated by the Southern Presbyterian Church. As the Goodland Presbyterian Children's Home since 1960, it is one of the oldest schools in continuous operation in Oklahoma.

Goodwater Choctaw Mission

Choctaw County
Location: on US-70, one mile west of Kiamichi River bridge
Topics: Religion/Philosophy, Education, American Indians, Social/Cultural

In 1837, Reverend Ebenezer Hotchkins established the mission that became a Choctaw seminary for girls in 1842. The school closed at the beginning of the Civil War. Only the graves of the missionaries who served there mark the site.

Pine Ridge Mission

Choctaw County
Location: on east side of Red Road 1/2 mile north of Doaksville/Fort Towson Cemetery

The Presbyterian minister Reverend Cyrus Kingsbury established the Pine Ridge Mission in 1836. The Choctaw Council established a school for girls, Chuahla Female Seminary, at the mission in 1842, which Kingsbury supervised. The school was closed during the Civil War.

Rose Hill

Choctaw County
Location: on US-70, two miles east of Hugo
Topics: Family/Household, American Indians, Social/Cultural, Agriculture, Ethnic Diversity

Rose Hill, constructed before the Civil War, was the plantation home of Colonel Robert M. Jones, the wealthiest citizen of the Choctaw Nation. At one time, he owned 500 slaves to farm the land along the Red River. His mansion was decorated with crystal chandeliers imported from Europe. Rose Hill burned to the ground on Christmas night 1912. Only a row of massive cedar trees mark the site of the home today. Nearby, Jones is buried with his wife and children in a family cemetery.

Spencer Academy

Choctaw County
Location: on US-70 in Sawyer
Material: Granite
Topics: Education, American Indians, Ethnic Diversity, Arts, Westward Expansion 1803–1861

A noted school for boys, Spencer Academy was established by the Choctaw Nation in 1841 and named for Secretary of War John C. Spencer. Students who became Choctaw leaders included Allen Wright, Jackson McCurtain, and Jefferson Gardner.

Stand Watie Surrender

Choctaw County
Location: at Doaksville
Material: Granite
Topics: Military

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