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Cherokee-Seneca Boundary

Delaware County
Location: on US-59 at Buffalo Creek
Material: Aluminum
Topics: American Indians, Settlement Patterns, Government

In 1831, more than 400 members of the Seneca Tribe in Ohio gave up their reservation land in exchange for a tract of land in the northeastern part of the Cherokee Nation. This was the boundary between the Cherokee land and the Seneca territory that comprised an area of 67,000 acres, seven miles by fifteen miles.

Fort Wayne

Delaware County
Location: on SH20, about one mile west of Arkansas line
Material: Aluminum
Topics: Military, Settlement Patterns, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, American Indians

Fort Wayne was originally intended as a link in the great line of forts extending north and south to afford protection on the frontier of the unknown West. It was soon realized that such extensive precautions were not necessary, and the locations were abandoned. One building had been completed, with four more under construction. These improvements were given to the Cherokee Nation and were in use until after the War Between the States. The exact site is known, but the buildings no longer exist and today nothing remains to mark the location of this frontier army post.

Moravian Mission Cemetery

Cherokee / Delaware County
Location: New Springplace Mission near Oaks

Moravian Mission Cemetery

Delaware County
Location: at New Springplace Mission near Oaks
Topics: American Indians, Westward Expansion 1803–1861, Religion/Philosophy, Territorial Period 1861–1907

Established as a Cherokee mission in 1842 by the Moravian Church, the institution was an outgrowth of a similar mission in Georgia, which was begun in 1802. Closed during the Civil War, the mission reopened afterward and continued to operate until 1902, when it was transferred to the Danish Lutheran Church. Only the walled spring and the gravestones of the cemetery, where many of the early missionaries were buried, remain.

New Springplace Cherokee Mission

Delaware County
Location: on OK-412A, three miles north of Oaks
Material: Aluminum
Topics: Westward Expansion 1803–1861, Religion/Philosophy, Social/Cultural, American Indians

Established by the Moravian Church in 1842, the old mission was closed during the Civil War after missionary James Ward was ambushed and killed. Prominent Cherokee families such as Adair, Fields, Ridge, Vann, and Watie attended the mission.

Stand Watie

Delaware County
Location: in Polson Cemetery, two miles northwest of South West City, Missouri
Material: Granite
Topics: American Indians, Military, Government, Territorial Period 1861–1907

Stand Watie, a leader of the pro-removal faction of Cherokees in the southeastern United States, was the first Indian commissioned in the Civil War as a general officer. At the close of the conflict, he commanded all Confederate troops in the Department of Indian Territory. In May of 1865, he surrendered to Union troops near Fort Towson, the last Confederate general to lay down his arms.

Watie and Ridge

Delaware County
Location: on US-59, 1/2 mile south of Grove
Material: Aluminum
Topics: American Indians, Settlement Patterns, Government, Military

Watie and his cousin, John Ridge, were signers of the 1835 treaty that brought about the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia to Indian Territory. Ridge was killed by opponents of removal, but Watie escaped and became a general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. See Stand Watie.

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To find out more about the Oklahoma Historical Society Historical Marker Program or how to submit an application, please visit the Historical Marker Program page.

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If you have questions, please contact:
Matthew Pearce
Oklahoma Historical Society
800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive
Oklahoma City, OK 73105