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Seminole County
Sponsored by: Student Council and Patrons of Paden, 1987-1988
Material: Granite
Topics: Petroleum, Natural Resources, Industry/Business, American Indians, UB, Social/Cultural, Government, Folklife, Ethnic Diversity, Education

The Cromwell oil field and town were named for Joe I. Cromwell of Muskogee, Oklahoma. A gas well, the #1 Jim Willis in the SE/4 SE/4NW/4 of Section 15-10N-8E, was completed at a depth of 3,466 feet by the Cosden Oil Co. on November 11, 1922. However, it was not until the discovery of oil by the Cromwell Oil & Gas Company at the #1 Bruner in the NW/4 NE/4 SW/4 of Section 15-10N-8E on October 2, 1923, that the drilling boom started. This well was completed to a depth of 3,475 feet. A total of 393 wells produced oil in the field with the largest oil well producing 5,600 barrels per day, and the largest gas well producing 125,000,000 M.C.F. The town of Cromwell and the surrounding oil field had a peak population of 10,000 during 1923 and 1924. Lawlessness became rampant and caused the town to be named "Cromwell the Wicked". In September 1924, prisoners from Cromwell were handcuffed to a log cabin and marched 14 miles to the county jail in Wewoka. To help curb the lawlessness in the town, William (Bill) Tilghman, a pioneer law officer and one of the famous "Three Guardsmen" of Oklahoma was named Chief of Police in September 1924. On November 1, 1924, at the age of seventy, Tilghman was slain at the entrance of Murphy's dance hall located where this marker stands.

Emahaka Mission

Seminole County
Location: in Seminole county, five miles south of Wewoka at intersection of US-270 and State-56
Topics: American Indians, Education

A school for Seminole Indian girls was established in 1894 operated by the Seminole Nation. Reverend W.P. Blake was the first superintendent. Mrs. Alice Brown Davis, who later became first female chief of the Seminole, was the superintendent in 1908 at Emahaka Mission. The school was abandoned in 1914, in a closing of Seminole government properties.


Seminole County
Location: in community of Lima
Topics: Ethnic Diversity, Territorial Period 1861–1907, Early Statehood 1907–1941, Settlement Patterns, Urban Development, Education

Lima is one of thirteen All-Black towns, out of more than fifty that once existed, remaining in Oklahoma. While Tullahassee is reportedly the oldest, most were established between 1889 and 1907 as African Americans sought security and control of their own destiny in a segregated world. Most of the towns began to decline in the 1920s and 1930s as rural African Americans faced economic hardships and began to move to urban areas. Lima had a post office from 1907 to 1957. It is the site of a Rosenwald School, which was constructed in 1921 with funding from Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company and trustee of the Tuskegee Institute.

Mekasukey Academy

Seminole County
Location: on OK-59, four miles southwest of Seminole
Topics: Education, American Indians, Early Statehood 1907–1941

Opened in 1891, this school educated Seminole boys until it became coeducational in 1914. The name came from an ancient Seminole war town. The school closed in 1930.


Seminole County
Location: on SH56, two miles west of Sasakwa
Material: Aluminum
Topics: American Indians, Government, Religion/Philosophy, Westward Expansion 1803–1861

Home of Governor John F. Brown for fifty-four year who was Principal Chief of the Seminole Nation, succeeding his father-inaw. Chief John Jumper, Col 1st Reft. Seminole Mtd: Vols. Confederate Army in Civil War. Young Brown was Lieut., 1st Reft. Creek Mid. Vols. C.S.A. Each in turn was pastor of Spring Church, near here, founded 1850 by Baptists.

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If you have questions, please contact:
Matthew Pearce
Oklahoma Historical Society
800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive
Oklahoma City, OK 73105