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96th Parallel

Osage County

Battle of Chustenahlah

Osage County
Location: A half mile west of N 52nd W Avenue on the north side of Highway 20
Coordinates: 36°22'07.1"N 96°03'34.0"W, (36.368646, -96.059451)
Material: Granite
Topics: Military, Government, American Indians, Westward Expansion 1803–1861

This site, 3.5 miles NW, is where Colonel James McIntosh, 2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles, routed loyal Union Indian forces December 26, 1861. The battle opened with fire from the Indian line of Patriot's Hill, 2 miles southwest. The loyal Union Indians finally fled to Kansas.

CCC-Osage Mountain

Osage County
Location: in Osage Hills State Park
Topics: Recreational/Service, Social/Cultural, Government, Early Statehood 1907–1941

Men of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built structures and roads in the park in the 1930s.

Drummond Home

Osage County
Location: at the Fred and Addie Drummond Home, 305 North Price in Hominy
Topics: Ethnic Diversity, American Indians, Ranching, Petroleum, Retail, Natural Resources, Family/Household

Frederick Drummond immigrated to the United States from Scotland in the 1880s. After moving to the Osage Reservation, he established the Hominy Trading Company in 1904 and expanded his operations into the cattle business and buying and leasing Indian lands, eventually building one of the state's largest ranches. Drummond and his wife, Addie, constructed this substantial Victorian home in 1905. Most of the original fine furnishings, as well as personal family records, photographs, and other items, are still in the house.

James Bigheart

Osage County
Location: north side of SH11, 1/2 mile east of the Bird Creek Bridge east of Barnsdall
Material: Aluminum
Topics: American Indians, Indian and Frontier Trade, Natural Resources, Territorial Period 1861–1907

After the Civil War, Bigheart became chief of the Osage. He operated a trading post at Big Heart, now Barnsdall, and led his people to retain all mineral rights to their lands which brought great wealth to the Osage people.

Million Dollar Elm

Osage County
Location: on the Osage Agency grounds in Pawhuska
Material: Granite
Topics: Petroleum, Natural Resources, American Indians, Folklife, Social/Cultural, Territorial Period 1861–1907

The discovery of "black gold" in Oklahoma precipitated one of the greatest rushes in the history of the West. One of the most famous oil discoveries took place on the Osage Reservation in the northeastern portion of Oklahoma. The mineral rights to the lands were sold to the highest bidder at auctions held under a large elm tree in Pawhuska. Because of the tremendous wealth that traded hands beneath its limbs, the tree became known as the "Million Dollar Elm".

Osage Agency

Osage County
Location: at front entrance to First National Bank, 100 West Main, Pawhuska (DAR)
Sponsored by: Daughters of the American Revolution
Topics: American Indians, Government, Territorial Period 1861–1907

The first Osage Indian Agency, a hand-cut stone building, was erected on this site by the Department of the Interior in 1873 to handle relations between the Osage and the federal government.

Osage Agency

Osage County
Location: on Grandview Avenue in Pawhuska
Material: Aluminum
Topics: American Indians, Government, Natural Resources, Petroleum, Folklife, Social/Cultural, Territorial Period 1861–1907

The Osage agency was established in 1872 to oversee the federal government's relationship with the Osage. Congress allowed the Osage to retain ownership of minerals in their reservation lands. When oil was discovered in the area, the allotted Osage became the richest Indian tribe in American history. On the grounds is an elm tree under which many early-day oil deals were made. The tree is called the "million-dollar elm.

Osage Chief Fred Lookout

Osage County
Location: east of Pawhuska on Lookout Mountain
Topics: American Indians, Government, Territorial Period 1861–1907, Industrial Period 1841–1892

Fred Lookout was the last hereditary chief of the Osage. After being educated in the East, he returned to the Osage Nation in 1884. He served as the leader of his people longer than anyone. He died in 1949 at the age of ninety-eight. His wife, Julia, was a descendant of Chief Pawhuska.

Osage County Museum

Osage County
Location: at 700 Lynn Avenue, Pawhuska
Topics: American Indians

The vivid history of the Osage Nation and the surrounding region is recorded in this museum. It preserves intact the heritage of the only Indian reservation to be included within the boundaries of Oklahoma.

Osage Hills

Osage County
Location: on US-60 between Pawhuska and Bartlesville
Topics: American Indians, Natural Resources, Environmental/Cultural Ecology, Ranching

First settled by the Osage Indians in 1796, the area is now part of the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, a protected remnant of the original North American prairie, a 500-mile wide stretch of land in the central part of the United States that extended from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. The tallgrass prairie exists today only in those areas which are not tillable or have soils not conducive to farming. Rich grasses in the prairie have sustained cattle-grazing operations since the 1880s.

Osage Hills State Park

Osage County
Location: on US-60 northeast of Pawhuska
Topics: Government, Recreational/Service, Social/Cultural, Early Statehood 1907–1941, Natural Resources

The Osage Hills State Park, built by Civilian Conservation Corps Company 895 from 1936 to 1939, is centrally located in the lush, rolling hills and a densely wooded canyon between Pawhuska and Bartlesville.

Patriarch Petrochemical Plant of the Southwest

Osage County
Location: in Barnsdall
Material: Granite
Topics: Manufacturing


Osage County
Location: on OK-11 and OK-20 in Skiatook
Material: Granite
Topics: American Indians, Indian and Frontier Trade, Territorial Period 1861–1907, Government, Mass Communication

W. C. Rogers, later a chief of the Cherokee Nation, established a trading post near here in 1872. A post office was opened in Rogers' store on March 12, 1880. The name comes from Skiatooka, a prominent Osage who traded in Rogers' store.

St. John's School

Osage County
Location: at intersection of OK-20 and Blackburn Road, eleven miles west of Hominy
Material: Granite
Note: Marker reported missing on 12/20/2023
Topics: Education, American Indians, Religion/Philosophy, Territorial Period 1861–1907

The St. John's School for Osage boys was founded by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions in 1888 on the banks of Hominy Creek. A four-story stone building was erected in 1893 to replace the original log school. The school closed in 1913 but the buildings were maintained until the 1950s when they were torn down.

St. Louis School

Osage County
Location: just off US-60 south and west of Clear Creek Bridge in Pawhuska
Topics: American Indians, Education, Social/Cultural, Religion/Philosophy

This Osage girls school was founded in 1887 by Mother Mary Katharine Drexel, a Philadelphia heiress who entered a convent as a young woman and used her fortune to support educational institutions across the southern United States, and the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. The school's original frame building burned in 1889 and was replaced by a four-story stone building. In 1942, the school became St. Louis Academy. Later, the buildings were razed and replaced with a low-income housing project. In 2000, Mother Katharine was named a saint by Pope John Paul II.

Wooster Mound

Osage County
Location: on OK-99 near Wynona
Topics: Government, Folklife, Social/Cultural, Territorial Period 1861–1907

Near here in 1903, lawman Wiley G. Haines and a small posse killed Sam and Will Martin who were wanted for murder, robbery, and other crimes in five states. A third member of the Martin Gang, Clarence Simmons, escaped.


Osage County
Location: on OK-99, eight miles south of Pawhuska
Topics: Government, Territorial Period 1861–1907, Mass Communication

Post office was established in 1903 in Wynona, a Sioux word meaning "first-born daughter.

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